Driving Emissions to Zero: Are the Benefits of California's Zero Emission Vehicle Program Worth the Costs?

By Lloyd Dixon; Isaac Porche et al. | Go to book overview

APPENDIX

A. CHARACTERISTICS OF BATTERY-POWERED ELECTRIC VEHICLES
PRODUCED TO DATE

A.1 FULL-FUNCTION ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Table A.1 lists the performance characteristics of the full-function EVs that large-volume manufactures have produced to date. These vehicles were sold or leased between 1997 and 2000 to satisfy the memoranda of understanding between CARB and the automakers. For each full- function EV, the table reports the performance characteristics of an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) that is comparable in size and body style.

EV range on a single charge generally varies from 50 to 100 miles, with the exception of GM's NiMH-powered EV1. Where comparisons are available, the EVs have substantially lower top speeds than the comparable ICEV and, again with the exception of GM's EV1, accelerate more slowly.


A.2 CITY ELECTRIC VEHICLES

City EVs offer lower performance than full-function EVs, with concomitantly less demand on the batteries. They are ultracompact (105 inches to 120 inches long), two-passenger cars with top speeds and acceleration that make them fit primarily for surface road use. They are intended, ultimately, to meet all Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) for passenger cars, including, for example, having dual air bags.1 Four of the auto manufacturers subject to the ZEV program have announced their intention to introduce city EVs.

In January 1999, Ford acquired the bankrupt Norwegian company Pivco, manufacturer of the Citybee city EV.2 The Citybee and its successor, the Th!nk City,3 have had Scandinavian sales of over 500 (EV World, 2000) at a price of approximately $25,000 (USA Today, 2000). The City has a top speed of 56 mph, a 0–30 mph acceleration of 7 seconds (Automotive Intelligence

____________________
1
No currently available city EVs are FMVSS 591 certified. Certification is required only for production models with U.S. sales of more than 2,000.
2
Forty Citybees were used in a 1995 station car demonstration in the San Francisco area (Moore, 2000a).
3
The Th!nk Group is intended to become a separate brand within the Ford Motor Company, home for all its alternative-power vehicle technologies (New Car Test Drive, 2001). Th!nk Mobility, LLC, is a wholly owned subsidiary dedicated to BPEVs, and Th!nk Technologies is dedicated to fuel-cell EVs (Burke, Kurani, and Kenney, 2000).

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