Foreign Direct Investment in Russia: A Strategy for Industrial Recovery

By Paul Fischer | Go to book overview

Notes
1
International organizations such as GATT and OECD contributed significantly to liberalizing trade and reducing tariff and nontariff barriers. Today, these bodies increasingly concentrate on liberalizing FDI by establishing viable rules for foreign investors in recipient countries. See Chapter 2.4.
2
Most data in this chapter are derived from UNCTAD, World Investment Reports 1996, 1997, 1998.
3
The Economist, 'Trade Winds', 8 November 1997, pp. 99–100.
4
UNCTAD, World Investment Report 1999.
5
The IMF, for example, imposes strict policy rules including drastic cuts in spending and efforts to raise tax revenue. It is therefore often difficult for recipient countries to pursue long-term goals for reviving their industries.
6
The Economist, 'The Right to Fund the Fund', 21 February 1998, pp. 51–52.
7
G7 countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom and United States.
8
By 2000, this ratio is expected to drop below the 20 per cent mark.
9
World Bank, World Development Report 1997.
10
Parts V and VI.
11
This trend will be reinforced by increased globalization in coming decades.
12
Chapters 5–7.
13
Eurostat, Foreign Investment Yearbook, 1996.
14
Chapter 4.1.
15
US$100 billion, in today's prices. See also Société de Banque Suisse, 'Plan Marshall: des devises pour la paix' [Marshall Plan: its contribution to peace], Le Mois, November 1997, pp. 20–23.
16
For historical time series since the early 1980s, see also Annex 3.1.
17
Chapter 13.4.2.
18
Japan went through a phase of active internationalization during 1985–93, when major investments were made in North America, the EU and Asia.
19
See Table 3.2.
20
Chapter 13.
21
See also Chapter 1.9.
22
Chapters 1.7 and 1.8.
23
For historical time series since the early 1980s, see also Annex 3.2.
24
Handelsblatt, 20 October 1997.
25
Chapter 5.2.
26
This trend will not be affected by the financial crisis in Southeast and East Asia (especially South Korea, Indonesia and Thailand) at the end of 1997.
27
LEMs: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Russia. See also Figures 3.113.16.
28
UN Economic Commission for Europe, Statistical Survey of Recent Trends in Foreign Investment in East European Countries, 1995.
29
Under favourable global economic circumstances, Russia could garner 25–30 per cent of FDI stock directed to Central and Eastern Europe by 2002–03, despite the 1998 financial crisis.
30
According to Goskomstat, Russia's FDI outflows amounted to US$1.1 billion in 1998, of which 90 per cent in financial services and the remainder mostly in gas and oil.
31
For more details concerning FDI in Russia, see Chapter 9.3.
32
Chapter 17.1

-114-

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