Empirical Direction in Design and Analysis

By Norman H. Anderson | Go to book overview

APPENDIX: HOW TO RANDOMIZE

Randomization provides a solid ground for experimental analysis. It provides a vital means to handle the twin problems of validity and reliability of the response. Virtually all statistics texts emphasize randomization as a basic principle; virtually none tell how to do it.


A.1 RANDOMIZATION PROCEDURES

How to randomize in practice is the concern of this section. The first three subsections present what may perhaps be called standard randomization procedure for the usual run of psychological experiments. Field studies often present complications, as noted later.

Subject Assignment Sheet. The standard way to randomize subjects across experimental conditions is to make up the subject assignment sheet before running the first subject. In one useful form, this sheet lists the sequence of conditions in a randomized order; this is the order in which they are to be run. The first subject to appear is run under the first listed condition, the second under the second listed condition, and so on down the list. The subjects may appear for the experiment in any arbitrary manner; randomization is accomplished by the construction of the list. a

This subject assignment sheet should ordinarily include a line or two to list subject's I.D., experimental condition, and date. Persons who run each subject should be identified. The completed sheet should be retained in the permanent file for the experiment.

Also included on the sheet, no doubt, should be space for comments on the subject's behavior. Such comments can be helpful for understanding unusual scores and thereby for improving experimental procedure in future work. In addition, this requirement encourages the experimenters to improve their observational skills and gain better appreciation of subjects' phenomenology. This is valuable for all of us, not only when we are graduate students.

With human subjects, the question—answer period at the end of the experiment can provide material for comments. One technique is to present selected experimental stimuli and ask subjects to explain their response. To be effective, these comments should be systematic for all subjects.

Randomizing Conditions. One way to randomize the sequence of conditions is to use Table A1 (page 809) or some other table of random numbers. With four treatments, for example, let the digits 1 to 4 stand for the four treatments. Enter the random number table by choosing a haphazard starting place, and use the chosen digit to determine the treatment for the first subject. Then proceed with successive digits, ignoring digits other than 1 to 4.

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Empirical Direction in Design and Analysis
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Dedication v
  • Foreword vi
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xvi
  • Chapter 1 - Scientific Inference 1
  • Preface 30
  • Chapter 2 - Statistical Inference 31
  • How to Do Exercises 54
  • Exercises for Chapter 2 54
  • Preface 58
  • Chapter 3 - Elements of Analysis of Variance I 59
  • Notes 75
  • Appendix: How to Randomize 77
  • Exercises for Chapter 3 84
  • Preface 90
  • Chapter 4 - Elements of Analysis of Variance II 91
  • Notes 111
  • Exercises for Chapter 4 113
  • Preface 118
  • Chapter 5 - Factorial Design 119
  • Notes 145
  • Appendix: Hand Calculation for Factorial Design 148
  • Exercises for Chapter 5 151
  • Preface 158
  • Chapter 6 - Repeated Measures Design 159
  • Notes 177
  • Exercises for Chapter 6 181
  • Preface 188
  • Chapter 7 - Understanding Interactions 189
  • Notes 209
  • Exercises for Chapter 7 214
  • Preface 218
  • Chapter 8 - Confounding 219
  • Notes 250
  • Preface 258
  • Chapter 9 - Regression and Correlation 259
  • Notes 280
  • Exercises for Chapter 9 282
  • Preface 286
  • Chapter 10 - Frequency Data and Chi-Square 287
  • Notes 300
  • Exercises for Chapter 10 302
  • Preface 306
  • Chapter 11 - Single Subject Design 307
  • Notes 338
  • Exercises for Chapter 11 345
  • Preface 350
  • Chapter 12 - Nonnormal Data and Unequal Variance 351
  • Notes 373
  • Exercises for Chapter 12 378
  • Preface 382
  • Chapter 13 - Analysis of Covariance 383
  • Notes 395
  • Exercises for Chapter 13 397
  • Preface 400
  • Chapter 14 - Design Topics I 401
  • Notes 431
  • Exercises for Chapter 14 437
  • Preface 442
  • Chapter 15 - Design Topics II 443
  • Notes 475
  • Exercises for Chapter 15 481
  • Preface 484
  • Chapter 16 - Multiple Regression 485
  • Notes 514
  • Exercises for Chapter 16 520
  • Preface 524
  • Chapter 17 - Multiple Comparisons 525
  • Notes 546
  • Exercises for Chapter 17 548
  • Preface 550
  • Chapter 18 - Sundry Topics 551
  • Notes 589
  • Exercises for Chapter 18 596
  • Preface 602
  • Chapter 19 - Foundations of Statistics 603
  • Notes 637
  • Preface 646
  • Chapter 20 - Mathematical Models for Process Analysis 647
  • Notes 677
  • Exercises for Chapter 20 681
  • Preface 688
  • Chapter 21 - Toward Unified Theory 689
  • Notes 729
  • Exercises for Chapter 21 742
  • Preface 750
  • Chapter 22 - Principles and Tactics of Writing Papers 751
  • Notes 761
  • Preface 764
  • Chapter 23 - Lifelong Learning 765
  • Notes 780
  • Preface 782
  • Chapter 0 - Basic Statistical Concepts 783
  • Notes 803
  • Exercises for Chapter 0 805
  • Statistical Tables 808
  • References 820
  • Author Index 847
  • Subject Index 854
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