Empirical Direction in Design and Analysis

By Norman H. Anderson | Go to book overview

NOTES
20.1a
For convenience, the term addition will be taken to include both addition and subtraction operations; mathematically, subtraction is addition of a negative number. This usage does not imply psychological equivalence. The term adding-type will also include averaging models, although averaging differs from adding both mathematically and psychologically (Section 21.4, pages 705 ff).
20.1.2a
This contrast between stimulus measurement in regression and in Anova illustrates a general problem in model analysis. A test of goodness of fit usually depends on securing the values of certain parameters in the model. These parameter values may be obtained in two ways: from the data at hand or from separate data. The first way is used in Anova, the second in regression. The first is usually preferable.

It might instead seem that separate parameter values would be superior; estimating parameters from the data and then using these parameters to “predict” those same data seems dubious. In fact, however, separate parameters suffers two shortcomings—invalidity and unreliability—both likely to be serious.

Invalidity can be avoided by estimating parameter values from the data at hand. This gives the model its best opportunity to fit the data. This is done in Anova, which avoids the ambiguity that troubles the regression analysis and provides a valid test of goodness of fit. A statsig discrepancy can thus be unambiguously attributed to the model itself.

Unreliability in the separate parameter values will generally introduce bias. This bias problem was illustrated with Ancova for nonrandom groups (Section 13.2). Without working familiarity with statistical theory of “errors in variables, reliance on separate predictor values is dangerous. Other difficulties with regression analysis of substantive models are noted in Section 20.2 and in Anderson (1982, Sections 4.3 and 6.1.1).

Regression analysis can be extended to estimate stimulus values in the same way as Anova, as noted in Chapters 9 and 16. Bogartz put this approach to good use in the study of infant perception/cognition of Note 8.1.2d. The present criticism concerns use of prior stimulus metrics without allowance for unreliability or invalidity.

20.1.3a
Except for Bogartz (1994a), the role of Anova for analysis of mathematical process models is completely ignored in statistics texts. This reflects the traditional focus on statistics to the neglect of empirics.
20.1.3b
What is most remarkable is that children can do these time judgments at all. This requires a complex assemblage: the imagined animal fleeing from the imagined dog across an imagined bridge at some imagined speed, and so on. This mental assemblage must be distilled into a quantitative judgment using an unfamiliar, symbolic response mode. The conceptual implications cited in the text are only one aspect of a fundamental issue of assemblage integration. One value of algebraic rules is potential for assemblage analysis (see Assemblage Theory in Anderson & Wilkening, 1991, pp. 20 ff).
20.1.3c
The experiment of Figure 20.2 reaffirmed the long-known fallibility of verbal report, that people “tell more than they know.” But contrary to Nisbett and Wilson (1977), individuals can give veridical self-reports. One illustration comes from Wright (1996), who used functional measurement theory to resolve two difficulties that had nullified previous attempts to disprove the thesis of Nisbett and Wilson that verbal reports

-677-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Empirical Direction in Design and Analysis
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 864

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.