Teacher Education through Open and Distance Learning

By Bernadette Robinson; Colin Latchem | Go to book overview

Chapter 6

Training non-formal, community and adult educators

Charles Potter and Mohammad Aslam

Many attempts have been made over the last forty years to improve the standard of education and literacy through non-formal, community and adult education programmes as well as through the formal education system. The literature of the 1970s and early 1980s, in particular, reflected an expectation that non-formal, community and adult education would be able to provide alternative forms of education and curricula in areas where the formal education system could not (Hall and Kidd 1978; Millar 1991a; Thompson 1981). It also reflected an expectation that distance education would be able to play a significant role in non-formal educational settings (Young et al. 1980).

While many non-formal education programmes have produced promising results, overall, the results of non-formal alternatives to the formal curriculum over the past twenty years have been mixed (Coombs 1985; Jamison and Lau 1982; King 1991). The evidence concerning the success and cost-effectiveness of non-formal education involving open and distance learning has also been generally equivocal, and in certain cases disappointing (Dodds 1996; Perraton 2000; Romain and Armstrong 1987). Nevertheless, the scale of the problems faced by developing countries and the sheer number of people who need to be provided with basic education suggest the need for finding ways of reaching and teaching large numbers of people using distance education via the mass media.

The use of mass media in education offers significant cost advantages compared to traditional face-to-face teaching (Adkins 1999; Cobbe 1994 and 1995; Dock and Helwig 1999). However, it has also become clear that distance education often works best in combination with interpersonal interaction and face-to-face contact, especially for learners with low educational levels, younger learners, rural and remote learners unused to formal education, and for some kinds of skill development where feedback on performance is needed. While mass media and distance education can provide information and learning resources for large populations of learners, they cannot easily mobilize local groups or assist individuals without the support of local agents such as tutors, facilitators, group

-112-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Teacher Education through Open and Distance Learning
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 251

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.