The Communist Movement in the Arab World

By Tareq Y. Ismael | Go to book overview

Notes

1

The heritage of Arab communist parties

1
The exceptions have been small splinter groups, which participated in the activities of the Fourth International, and equally insignificant pro-Chinese communist parties, which emerged in Egypt and Lebanon in the aftermath of the Sino-Soviet split.
2
Egypt will not be fully discussed in this book because of its movement's unique development. For a complete analysis of the movement there, see Tareq Y. Ismael and Rifaat el-Said, The Communist Movement in Egypt (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1990).
3
Hanna Batatu, in his examination of the known occupations of Iraqi Communist Party members in the late 1940s, calculated that 27.6 percent were students; 9.7 percent professionals (of whom 7.2 percent were teachers); 9.1 percent “white collar” (of whom 5.2 percent were civil servants); 6.7 percent petite bourgeoisie; 2.6 percent peasants; 25.7 percent workers and semi-proletarians; and 15.6 percent armed forces and police. See Hanna Batatu, The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978), pp. 1168-1171.
4
On Soviet policy toward the Middle East in general, and on Soviet foreign policy use of the Arab communists in particular, see George Lenczowski, Soviet Advances in the Middle East, Foreign Affairs Study 2 (Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1971).
5
Faleh A. Jabar, “Le Perestroika et les Partis Communistes Arabes, La Pensée (vol. 313, 1998), p. 110.
6
Ibid., p. 105.
7
Friedrich Engels, “Turkey, in Shlomo Aveniri, Karl Marx on Colonialism and Modernization: his dispatches [sic] and other writings on China, India, Mexico, the Middle East and North Africa (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1968), p. 135.
8
E.M. Carr, A History of Soviet Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution (London: Macmillan, 1957), p. 229.
9
Shloma Aveniri, Karl Marx on Colonialism and Modernization (New York: Doubleday, 1968), p. 48.
10
Karl Marx, New York Daily Tribune (July 30, 1853), quoted in Andrej Kreutz, “Marx in the Middle East, Arab Studies Quarterly (vol. 5, no. 2, 1983), p. 163.
11
Karl Marx, “Traditional Policy of Russia, New York Daily Tribune (August 12, 1853), quoted in Andrej Kreutz, “Marx in the Middle East, Arab Studies Quarterly (vol. 5, no. 2, 1983), p. 163.
12
Shloma Aveniri, op. cit.

-186-

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