Long-Term Environmental Effects of Offshore Oil and Gas Development

By Donald F. Boesch; Nancy N. Rabalais | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 8

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS: ASSESSMENTS FROM EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Judith M. Capuzzo
CONTENTS
Introduction ........................................................................... 343
Bioassay Design ...................................................................... 346
Bioaccumulation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons ................................ 350
Protophytes ......................................................................... 351
Corals ................................................................................ 351
Zooplankton ........................................................................ 352
Benthos .............................................................................. 353
Worms ............................................................................ 353
Bivalves ........................................................................... 353
Crustaceans ...................................................................... 358
Relationship between Bioaccumulation and Toxicity ................... 360
Biotransformations of Petroleum Hydrocarbons ............................ 361
Microbes ............................................................................. 361
Animals .............................................................................. 362
Metabolites and Their Effects ................................................. 368
Monitoring Aspects ............................................................... 370
Comparative Aspects of Acute Toxicity ....................................... 372
Phytoplankton ..................................................................... 374
Macroalgae ......................................................................... 374
Animals .............................................................................. 375
Developmental Stages ........................................................... 375
Extrinsic Factors .................................................................. 377
Toxicity Index ...................................................................... 378
Sublethal and Chronic Effects .................................................... 380
Conclusions and Recommendations ............................................. 388

INTRODUCTION

Biological effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on marine organisms are dependent upon their bioavailability and persistence, the ability of the organism

-343-

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