with psychological impairment as well as low social support (Gabe & Williams, 1987; Galle et al., 1972). Crowding studies that calculate persons per room as the density' metric that include people living alone distory the “stirna” of association between crowding and health outcomes.
Outcome measures are also wanting. Several studies of psychological health employed one item or scales of unknown psychometric standardized, sensitive indicators. Immune function would be a particularly valuable adjunct to environmental morbidity studies. Several studies of blood pressure incorporated one or two readings, often taken in a medical setting. Such data are unreliable and of questionable validity.
Health psychology has demonstrated that individual, biological, and personological characteristics are central to understanding health and disease. A smaller body of work within health psychology has also examined the potential role of sociocultural factors in human health. Hopefully, this chapter has directed attention to the potential direct, indirect, and interactive roles the physical environment can play in health and human behavior.
Preparation of this chapter was partially supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (1 ROl I-IL4732501) the National Science Foundation (BNS-8920483) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Hatch-No 327407). I am grateful to Jana Cooperman and Tamir Ebbin for bibliographic assistance. I thank Steve Lepore, Paul Paulus, and Shirley Thompson for critical feedback on earlier drafts.
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Publication information: Book title: Handbook of Health Psychology. Contributors: Andrew Baum - Author, Tracey A. Revenson - Author, Jerome E. Singer - Author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of publication: Mahwah, NJ. Publication year: 2001. Page number: 379.
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