Handbook of Health Psychology

By Andrew Baum; Tracey A. Revenson et al. | Go to book overview

35
Rehabilitation
Robert G. Frank
University of Florida

Isehabilitation “is defined as the development of a person to the fullest physical, psychological, social, vocational, avocational, and educational potential consistent with his or her physiological or anatomical impairment and environmental limitations. Realistic goals are determined by the person and those concerned with the patient's care. Thus, one is working to obtain optimal function, despite residual disability, even if the impairment is caused by a pathological process, it cannot be reversed, even with the best of modern medical treatment” (DeLisa, Martin, & Currie, 1988, p. 3).

Rehabilitation is a broad, interdisciplinary field, composed of “health care teams. “Rehabilitation teams utilize either a multidisciplinary or an interdisciplinary approach. In the multidisciplinary approach, individuals from a variety of disciplines work in parallel to improve an individual's function. In contrast, interdisciplinary teams use a coordinated, integrated approach to treatment with a common focus on outcomes. Intrinsic to both approaches, however, is an inherent emphasis on restoring individuals to their highest level of function in multiple realms. As noted in the previous definition, psychological functions are an important rehabilitation outcome. Psychological factors have a significant influence in all domains involved in rehabilitation: physical, social, vocational, avocational, and educational. Psychologists are well accepted as a integral member of rehabilitation teams.

Over the last two decades, rehabilitation has been one of the fastest growing areas of the health care industry (Frank, Gluck, & Buckelew, 1990). The growth in rehabilitation has been fueled by a number of factors. Recent advances in medical management have led to higher survival rates for accident victims. Although survivors of traumatic injuries benefit from technological advances, many are left with residual disability requiring treatment (Frank et al., 1990). Second, the “graying of America” has led to an increase in individuals who suffer from chronic conditions, many requiring rehabilitation. Chronic conditions engender significant health care costs. In the Medicare program, for example, 10% of the beneficiaries account for 70% of medical expenditures (Hoffman, Rice, & Sung, 1995). Individuals with limitations in activities due to chronic conditions account for only 17% of the population, but 47% of the medical expenditures. As many as 100 million Americans had chronic conditions in 1995, and per capita costs for these individuals are three times higher than individuals without chronic health care costs (Hoffman et al., 1995).


THE DEVELOPMENT OF REHABILITATION

Rehabilitation's growth has been tied to armed conflicts that have produced large numbers of disabled individuals. After World War I, improvements in battlefield management led to an increased number of veterans with residual disabilities. During World War II, dramatic improvements in battlefield management, and accompanying residual disability, led to the development of a medical specialty in the area of rehabilitation. The term physiatrist, originally used in 1938 to describe a physician specializing in rehabilitation, gained prominence. Until World War II, rehabilitation consisted of enabling individuals to ambulate to perform low energy activities. During World War II, Howard A. Rusk, a prominent early physiatrist, demonstrated that aggressive rehabilitation, including early ambulation after surgery, diverse recreational activities of varying intensity, and psychologically supported programs produced better outcomes (Frank et al., 1990).

Medicare is the primary payment source for rehabilitation programs. Almost half of all. rehabilitation care is funded by Medicare and a quarter of all rehabilitation outpatient stays

-581-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Handbook of Health Psychology
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 962

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.