Handbook of Health Psychology

By Andrew Baum; Tracey A. Revenson et al. | Go to book overview
could be made accessible nationally to investigators who submit proposals to the senior multiethnic research team that maintains oversight.
6. Building on previous federal initiatives designed to increase the number of ethnic minority principal investigators, development of a RFA for three funding cycles within NIAID targeting basic genetic, immunologic, vaccine, and treatment research on racial/ethnic differences under the leadership of senior/tenured minority principal investigators.
7. Development of review guidelines for NIH review committees that address not only inclusion of minorities but the inclusion of specific scientific hypotheses that explore racial/ethnic differences in genetic and immunologic responses to HIV infection, disease progression/nonprogression, development, and clinical and drug treatment strategies and options.
Whereas leadership by the federal government is essential and necessary to accelerating the science of racial/ethnic differences in susceptibility for HIV infection, disease progression/nonprogression clinical and drug treatment strategies and options, there are others who can exert leadership in this domain. For example:
1. Medical journal editors should require that when minorities are participants in studies, evidence be provided that there are no differences from nonminorities if their data are not presented separately or in comparison to nonminorities or between ethnic groups. Analyses by racelethnicity should be required unless there is a statistical case for foregoing such procedures.
2. Researchers must take seriously the task of mastering the scientific literature on HIV in ethnic minorities in order to develop testable hypotheses that can advance the field on ethnic/racial differences in the cause and treatment of HIV infection and disease. Many investigators will find that increased attention to this body of data will not only assist in advancing science but better equip them to design racially/ethnic diverse studies and maintain study cohorts.

Finally, although the authors could envision a number of additional recommendations to urge HIV research or biomedical research on racial/ethnic differences, none is as compelling as urging mechanisms to ensure that scientific findings are translated into prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies that reach the community. Without creating mechanisms by which the findings actually reach and benefit the population being focused on, researchers lose credibility with the community and fail to achieve the fundamental purpose of science, that is, to improve the lives of others.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The terms, Black and African American, are often used interchangeably in the literature. Some present-day African Americans are descended from Africans brought to this country more than a 150 years ago. However over time there has been admixture in which African Americans share a mixed biological heritage with Native Americans, Whites, and other racially distinct populations. There are also a number of groups that within research studies are designated Black but maintain some genetic distinctions in their admixture from African Americans such as Haitians, Belizeans, or Black Puerto Ricans. In studies, the designation of Blacks or African Americans may vary in which biological heritage groups are included. Therefore, throughout this chapter the term adopted by the original author of the work being reviewed is used in order to remain true to their designation of the population.

This work was supported by grants from the National Institute of Mental Health and the National Institute on Allergy and Infectious Diseases (ROlMH42584, ROlMH44345, ROlAI382 16) and an NIMH Scientist Development Award (K21MH00878) to the third author. We thank Mary Carrington, Love11 Jones, David Carlisle, and Karol Watson for their assistance, although we assume all responsibility for the contents of the chapter.


REFERENCES

Achord, A. P., Lewis, R. E., Brackin, M. N., Henderson, H., & Cruse, J. M. (1996). HIV-l disease association with HLA-DQ antigens in African Americans and Caucasians. Pathobiology, 64,204–208.

Achord, A. P., Lewis, R. E., Brackin, M. N., & Cruse, J. M. (1997). HLA-DQB 1 markers associated with human immunodeficiency virus Type I disease progression. Pclthobiology, 6.5, 210–215.

Adams, J. M. (1932). Some racial differences in blood pressures and morbidity in groups of White and colored workmen. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 184, 342–350.

Ahsan, C. H., Renwick, A. G., Waller, D. G., Challenor, V. F., George, C. F., & Amanullah, M. (1993). The influence of dose and ethnic origins on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 54(3), 329–338.

Alarif, L., Castro, O., Ofosu, M., Dunston, G., & Scott, R. B. (1986). HLA-B35 is associated with red cell alloimmunization in sickle cell disease. Clinical Immunology and Zmmunopathology, 38, 178–183.

Bourgoignie, J. J., Oritz-Interian, C., Green, D. F., & Roth, D. (1989). Race, a cofactor in HIV-I-associated nephropathy. Transplantation Proceedings, 6, 3899–3901.

Brackin, M. N., Lewis, R. E., Brackin, B. T., Achord, A., Henderson, H., Crawford, M., & Cruse, J. M. (1995). Progression of HIV infection is associated with HLA-DQ antigens in Caucasians and African Americans. Pathobiology,

Brown, C., Kline, R., Atibu, L., Francis, H., Ryder, R., & Quinn, T. C. (199 1). Prevalence of HIV-I p24 antigenemia in African and North American populations and correlation with clinical status. AIDS, 5, 89–92.

Brown, S. R., Lane, J. R., Wagner, K. F., Zhou, S., Chung, R., Ray, K. L., Blatt, S. P., & Burke, D. S. (1995). Rates of p24 antigenemia and viral isolation in comparable White and Black HIV-infected subjects. AIDS, 9, 325–328.

Burrell, D. E., Antignani, A., Goldwasser P., Mittman, N., Fein, P. A., Slater, P. A., Gan, A., & Avram, M. M. (1991). Lipid abnormailites in Black renal patients. Lipid, 91, 192–196.

Callender, C. O., & Dunston, G. M. (1987, February/March). Kidney transplantation: A dilemma for Black Americans. Renal Lijk, II.

response to drug

and responses to vaccine candidates and

62, 22–41.

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