Multilateralism, German Foreign Policy, and Central Europe

By Claus Hofhansel | Go to book overview

3

From the “policy of movement” toward reconciliation

The primary purpose of this chapter is to analyze German support for multilateralism in a series of major diplomatic agreements which (West) Germany negotiated with Czechoslovakia/the Czech Republic and Poland since the early 1960s. From its establishment in 1949 until the 1970s, the Federal Republic of Germany did not maintain diplomatic relations with most Central and Eastern European countries. The main exception to this pattern was the establishment of diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union, as one of the four victorious powers of World War II, and West Germany in 1955. The major obstacle to diplomatic relations between the Federal Republic and countries in Central and Eastern Europe was the so-called Hallstein doctrine, according to which West Germany in practice would break off relations with states that had recognized East Germany. Under Christian Democratic Foreign Minister Schröder, who served from 1961 until 1966, the West German government took the first steps to move away from the rigid positions of the 1950s. The main vehicle for this move were trade negotiations aimed at the establishment of trade missions, which would also serve as a partial substitute for full diplomatic missions. In the case of Poland, the West German government succeeded in securing such an agreement in 1963, but the Polish government made it clear that there could not be any full normalization of relations without recognition of Poland's western frontier. 1 Similar negotiations with Czechoslovakia were much more protracted and did not result in an agreement until 1967 under the Social Democratic Foreign Minister Willy Brandt and his assistant Egon Bahr. Change in West Germany's Ostpolitik accelerated after the 1969 elections, which put Willy Brandt in the chancellor's office. The first major fruits of Brandt's détente policy were treaties with the Soviet Union and Poland in 1970, followed by major agreements with East Germany in 1972 and Czechoslovakia in 1973. Following these agreements, West German and Central and Eastern European governments negotiated a number of agreements addressing various issues in the areas of cultural and economic cooperation. Relatively speaking, however, these were only incremental efforts. Relations underwent a dramatic and qualitative change in 1989 after the regime changes in Central and Eastern Europe, and

-23-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Multilateralism, German Foreign Policy, and Central Europe
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 157

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.