The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form?

By Mike Jenks; Elizabeth Burton et al. | Go to book overview
Save to active project

Peter Nijkamp and Sytze A. Rienstra


Sustainable Transport in a Compact City

Introduction

A general phenomenon experienced by almost all cities in the world has been the emergence of green and diffuse suburbs around the city centres. As a result, the population density in cities has decreased significantly. The private car has brought low density living within the reach of large groups of upper and lower middle-class families. In fact, suburbanisation of living is a consequence of various broad changes in society, such as income increase, smaller households, more leisure time, and changing housing preferences. However, suburbanisation is also usually associated with negative socio-economic and environmental impacts, including longer working and shopping trips, increased energy consumption, pollution, accidents, and problematic public transport provision (Masser et al., 1992).

Suburbanisation of living was followed in subsequent years by a second wave of suburbanisation of employment. Thus, dwellings as well as jobs tended to disperse further from urban centres into wider metropolitan areas, a process which may be called extended suburbanisation or counter-urbanisation (Breheny, forthcoming).

The development of decentralised cities, as well as other trends in the economy and society, have caused an enormous increase in car use, even in urban areas. At the same time, the length of commuting trips has increased greatly. Consequently, the external costs of transport have risen drastically; according to recent calculations these may account for some 3% of Gross National Product (Verhoef, 1994).

Development in most large cities of the Western world seems to be following a more diffuse spatial pattern. In spatial planning however, a contrasting concept is gaining much popularity. This concept is embodied in the 'compact city', where housing is provided in a relatively high density form, and where jobs are concentrated in the central city and in a limited number of sub-centres. The compact city has become a leading principle in Dutch physical planning in recent

-190-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form?
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 350

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?