Collected Writings of J.A.A. Stockwin: The Politics and Political Environment of Japan

By J. A. A. Stockwin | Go to book overview

First published in Vernon Bogdanor and David Butler (eds), Democracy and Elections: Electoral Systems and their Political Consequences, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983


3

Democracy and Elections: Japan

FEW COUNTRIES in the world today have had longer or more extensive experience with elections than Japan. Elections for the House of Representatives have been held regularly, even during wartime, since 1890. 1 While it is true that until after the Second World War Parliament had a severely limited part to play in the political system as a whole, its role was not completely negligible, and the experience gained over a long period in both the holding of elections and the organising of political parties was of lasting value. Although in early elections under the Meiji constitution, 2 the size of the electorate was small as a result of imposition of a strict property franchise, the number of those males entitled to vote grew by several stages until in 1925 universal male franchise was introduced, with a lower age limit for voting of twenty-five years. 3 Under American auspices following the Japanese defeat of 1945, both men and women over the age of twenty obtained the vote, while a battery of other reforms were introduced, including a new constitution, enshrining the principle of popular sovereignty, and designed to ensure freedom of political organisation with a role for Parliament in the centre of the political stage. 4

A principal concern of those who have investigated Japan's social, economic and political development since the American Occupation following the end of the Second World War has been the question of continuity and discontinuity. How far did the reforms of the Occupation open up a different path for Japan from that which she had been pursuing before? Or did indigenous norms and practices reassert themselves through the veneer of institutional reforms enacted under American auspices? The argument, indeed, is part of a broader concern about Japanese modernisation from the nineteenth century onwards. Japan was virtually a closed country for some two and a half centuries before the 1850s, and the sociopolitical culture of Japan, emerging as a member of the comity of nations in the late nineteenth century, was highly idiosyncratic from a Western point of view, or even by comparison with most of the rest of Asia. The opening of the country to the outside world involved much absorption of Western norms and ways of doing things, but indigenous values and modes of socio-economic organisation and behaviour proved persistent in many spheres.

-35-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Collected Writings of J.A.A. Stockwin: The Politics and Political Environment of Japan
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 551

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.