A History of Ancient Near Eastern Law - Vol. 2

By Raymond Westbrook; Gary Beckman et al. | Go to book overview

EGYPT
ELEPHANTINE
Bezalel Porten

1. SOURCES OF LAW

Persian period Elephantine merits special treatment because it has yielded a rich crop of Aramaic papyri and ostraca. An even larger amount of material has emerged from Saqqarah, but while a respectable amount of the Elephantine material is intact, virtually all of the Saqqarah pieces are fragmentary. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the Persian Empire and while almost all the Elephantine material stems from a Jewish military colony, that from Saqqarah is free of Jewish reference. There are no law codes or royal edicts, but private contracts, court records (Saqqarah only), letters private and official, fragments of the Bisitun inscription, and the Words of Ahiqar.


1.1 Private Legal Documents

The best preserved documents were two family archives acquired on the antiquities market, the Anani archive (EPE B34–46; with the exception of B34) by Charles Edwin Wilbour in 1893 and the Mibtahiah archive by Lady William Cecil and Sir Robert Mond (EPE B23–33) in 1904. These documents deal with sale and bequest, marriage, manumission, slavery, and litigation. Texts subsequently discovered in excavation by Otto Rubensohn in 1906–8 added deeds of obligation (EPE B48, 51;TAD B4.1, 3–5) and judicial oaths (EPE B49, 52;TAD B7.1, 4). The average legal contract was a narrative document, opening in objective style with date and identity of the parties and concluding similarly with mention of scribe (and sometimes place) and witnesses. The operative part of the document was a subjective statement made by the party on whom lay the obligation. This would be the seller who warrants the buyer's title (EPE B37, 45), the donor who spells out the beneficiary's rights (EPE B25, 38, 40, 43–44), the borrower who lays down terms of repayment (EPE B46, 48), or the defeated litigant who guarantees his opponent's

-863-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
A History of Ancient Near Eastern Law - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents of Volume Two *
  • Part Three - First Millennium 775
  • Egypt - Third Intermediate Period 777
  • Bibliography 813
  • Egypt - Demotic Law 819
  • Bibliography 855
  • Egypt - Elephantine 863
  • Mesopotamia - Neo-Assyrian Period 883
  • Bibliography 907
  • Mesopotamia - Neo-Babylonian Period 911
  • Bibliography 968
  • Anatolia and the Levant - Israel 975
  • Bibliography 1042
  • International Law - International Law in the First Millennium 1047
  • Bibliography 1064
  • Indices 1067
  • Subject Index 1069
  • Index of Ancient Terms 1141
  • Index of Texts Cited 1161
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 1209

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.