Early versions of this chapter were presented to the Chicago Chapter of the America Society for Public Administration, 22 June 1989; the Western Michigan Chapter of the American Society of Fund Raising Executives, Grand Rapids, 21 September 1989; the Southwestern Section of the Michigan Society of Professional Engineers, Kalamazoo, 3 October 1989; and the Center for Ethics Studies, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 27 October 1989. I should like to thank those present, and my colleagues at IIT, especially, Sohair ElBaz and Jing Li, for helping me to fit the pieces together.

The first recorded use of “medical ethics” in this sense (or any other) seems to be the title of Thomas Percival's 1803 text, Medical Ethics.
I give priority to the very successful Samuel Gorovitz et al. (eds), Moral Problems in Medicine, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice, 1976. But, in fairness, I should mention two other texts that appeared the same year: another philosophical anthology, James M. Humber and Robert F. Almeder (eds), Biomedical Ethics and the Law, New York, Plenum P., 1976; and a survey by Howard Brody, Ethical Decisions in Medicine, Boston, Little, 1976. Several more texts appeared the following year. Medical ethics had come of age.
See, for example, the famous exchange beginning with Monroe Freedman, “Professional Responsibility of the Criminal Defense Lawyer, Michigan Law Review, 1966, vol. 64, pp. 1,469-84. The philosophically sophisticated literature-much of it the work of philosopher-lawyers-was only beginning to appear the year I first taught legal ethics. See, for example, Richard Wasserstrom, “Lawyers as Professionals: Some Moral Issues, Human Right, 1975, vol. 5, pp. 1-24.
The best of these, Vern Countryman and Ted Finman (eds), The Lawyer in Modern Society, Boston, Little, 1966, begins with the observation that “law teaching focuses on law almost to the exclusion of the lawyer.” I used instead Maynard E. Pirsig (ed.), Professional Responsibility, St. Paul, West, 1970-a text going back to 1949-because it had been revised for the new code. None of the texts then


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Ethics and the University


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