Crusaders, Condottieri, and Cannon: Medieval Warfare in Societies around the Mediterranean

By Donald J. Kagay; L. J. Andrew Villalon | Go to book overview

A NEW LOOK AT THE FOUNDATION OF THE
ORDER OF CALATRAVA
Theresa M. Vann

Joseph F. O'Callaghan's doctoral thesis, “The Affiliation of the Order of Calatrava with the Order of Cîteaux, identified a significant gap in Cistercian and Crusader studies.1 The Spanish militar religious orders were not obscure, and previous histories of the crusades had mentioned them, usually as an afterthought to the better-known Orders of the Hospital and the Temple. But when O'Callaghan began his work no modern monograph of comparable critical scope focused on the native Iberian religious orders.2 The only other available secondary works were antiquarian or pietistic accounts in Spanish that catered to Calatrava as a noble order of chivalry. Unlike the Hospitallers and Templars, there was no published corpus of archival material for O'Callaghan to draw upon, and that lacuna still exists.3

____________________
1
Joseph F. O'Callaghan, “The Affiliation of the Order of Calatrava with the Order of Cîteaux, Ph. D. thesis, Fordham University, 1956.
2
Some early works on the Order of Calatrava are: Francisco de Rades y Andrada, Crónica de las tres Ordenes y Caballerías de Santiago, Calatrava y Alcántara (Toledo, 1572; facsimilie ed., Barcelona, 1980); Francisco Caro de Torres, Historia de las ordenes militares de Santiago, Calatrava y Alcántara (Madrid, 1629); Giuseppe de Zuñiga, Epitome historica dell'illustrissima religione et inclita cavalleria de Calatrava (Lecce, 1669); J. Fernández Llamazares, Historia compendiata de las cuatro ordenes militares de Santiago, Calatrava, Alcántara y Montesa (Madrid, 1862); and Honorio Alonso Rodríguez, Algo sobre la fundación de la Orden de Calatrava (Barcelona, 1917). Some later monographs are: Francis Gutton, L'Ordre de Calatrava (Paris, 1955); Derek Lomax, Las ordenes militares en la peninsula iberica durante la edad media (Salamanca, 1976), discusses the sources for the study of the Spanish military orders; see pp. 71–109 for a comprehensive bibliography; and Emma Solano, La Orden de Calatrava en el siglo xv: los senorios castellanos de la orden al fin de la edad media (Seville, 1978), pp. 23–50, contains an annotated listing of the unedited sources and a listing of the published ones. Subsequent articles on the Order of Calatrava includes Clara Estow, “The Economic Development of the Order of Calatrava, 1158–1366, Speculum 57 (1982): 267–291. Similar monographs about the Order of Santiago also exist. The most useful of the older sources remains José López Agurleta, Vida del venerable fvndador de la orden de Santiago, y de las primeras casas de redempción de cautivos (Madrid, 1731); and Bernabé de Chaves, Apuntamiento legal sobre el dominio solar de la Orden de Santiago en todos sus pueblos (Madrid, 1740; facsimilie ed., Barcelona, 1975).
3
O'Callaghan used Francisco de Uhagón y Guardamino, “Indice de los documentos de la Orden Militar de Calatrava, BRAH 35 (1899): 5–167, which indexed most of the unpublished documents of Calatrava in the Archivo Histórico Nacional (Madrid). Ignatio Josef de Ortega y Cotes, Bulario de la Orden Militar de Calatrava (also entitled Bullarium ordinis militiae de Calatrava) (Madrid, 1761; facsimile edition, Barcelona, 1981) contains the papal bulls issued to the Order. In comparison to the Order of Calatrava, more documents pertaining to the early years of the Order of Santiago have been published: a partial list would include Antonio Francisco Aguado de Cordoba, Bullarium Equestris Ordinis S. Iacobi de Spatha per annorum seriem nonnullis (Madrid, 1719); Derek W. Lomax, La Orden de Santiago (1170–1275) (Madrid, 1965); José Luis Martín, Orígenes de la orden militar de Santiago (Barcelona, 1974); Milagros Rivera Garretas, La encomienda, el priorato y la villa de Uclés en la Edad Media (Madrid, 1985); and Enrique Gallego Blanco, The Rule of the Spanish Military Order of Saint James (Leiden, 1971).

-93-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Crusaders, Condottieri, and Cannon: Medieval Warfare in Societies around the Mediterranean
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 345

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.