America Embattled: September 11, Anti-Americanism, and the Global Order

By Richard Crockatt | Go to book overview

3

The roots of terror

Islam, the Middle East, and the United States

The Middle Eastern sources of the terrorist attacks of September 11 have been firmly established. The evidence suggests that the attacks were carried out by terrorists from a number of Middle Eastern countries acting, if not under the direct orders of Osama bin Laden, then according to his publicly stated goals. Bin Laden's primary aim, as announced in a statement issued by the Al Qaeda organization in 1998, was “to kill the Americans and their allies-civilian and military” as a matter of “individual duty for every Muslim, this aim in turn being supposedly in line with the Quranic injunction to “fight the pagans all together as they fight you all together” and “fight them until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in God.” 1 Among the frequently stated grievances of bin Laden was the presence on Saudi Arabian soil of American troops, defiling the holy land of the Prophet; American support for Israel and, in particular, its policy toward the Palestinians; and finally, American policy toward Iraq. Bin Laden's was at least nominally a pan-Islamic vision that linked the oppression of any one group of Muslims with the West's oppression of Islam itself.

Whatever doubts were expressed initially about the responsibility of bin Laden and Al Qaeda for the attacks of September 11 disappeared in most observers' eyes with the release of a videotape in mid-December 2001, in which bin Laden was seen to exult in the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon and to show knowledge of the planning of the attacks. 2 Investigations by the FBI and other organizations in a number of countries produced an evidence trail linking the perpetrators of the attacks with cells of Islamic militants in several European countries. Clear connections were established between these militants and Al Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan, where bin Laden was based after the Taliban took power there in 1996. Bin Laden's own actions and statements showed a consistent pattern of extreme rejection of the West and also of Arab governments, above all

-72-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
America Embattled: September 11, Anti-Americanism, and the Global Order
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 207

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.