Eastern Europe at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century: A Guide to the Economies in Transition

By Ian Jeffries | Go to book overview

4

Hungary

POLITICS

The demographic background

The population of Hungary is markedly homogeneous. Hungarians constitute 92 per cent of the population, Gypsies 5 per cent, Germans 2 per cent and South Slavs 1 per cent (Independent, 7 May 1994, p. 11).


Political developments prior to the 1994 general election

16-18 April 1993: at its fifth congress the Federation of Young Democrats permits those over 35 years of age to join the party. Viktor Orban is re-elected president. The party is pro-market and pro-democracy.

30 April 1993: a treaty is signed by Hungary and Ukraine which states that 'neither country has, nor will have, any territorial claims on the other'. Ukraine gives guarantees about the treatment of its Hungarian minority (EEN, 1993, vol. 7, no. 10, p. 2).

1 June 1993: Istvan Csurka and three other members on the extreme right wing of the Hungarian Democratic Forum are expelled from the parliamentary party. A nationwide party meeting on 5 June confirmed the decision, saying that Csurka's movement Hungarian Way was incompatible with membership of the party. He then formed the Hungarian Justice Party on 22 June 1993 (later called Hungarian Justice and Life after its 1930s namesake).

22 August 1993: the electoral deal agreed in July between the Alliance of Free Democrats and the Federation of Young Democrats is widened to include the Entrepreneurs' Party (led by Peter Zwack) and the Agrarian Alliance. For example, joint candidates may be put up in the second round of voting (EEN, 25 August 1993, vol. 7, no. 17, p. 3, and 29 March 1994, vol. 8, no. 7, p. 4).

4 September 1993: Admiral Miklos Horthy (the 'Regent' of Hungary, pending a Habsburg 'restoration', from March 1920 to October 1944, who died in Portugal in 1957) is reburied in Hungary amid controversy.

12 December 1993: prime minister Jozsef Antall dies at the age of 61 (of heart

-202-

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Eastern Europe at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century: A Guide to the Economies in Transition
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page v
  • Contents vii
  • Tables xii
  • Acknowledgements xiii
  • Introduction and Overview 1
  • Part I - The Countries of Eastern Europe 65
  • 1 - Albania 67
  • 2 - Bulgaria 116
  • 3 - The Czech Republic 156
  • 4 - Hungary 202
  • 5 - Poland 240
  • 6 - Romania 297
  • 7 - Slovakia 348
  • Part II - General Issues 381
  • 8 - General Issues in the Transition from Command to Market Economies 383
  • Bibliography 416
  • Index 433
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