Lollards and Their Influence in Late Medieval England

By Fiona Somerset; Jill C. Havens et al. | Go to book overview

Preface

Anne Hudson

Matthew Paris reported that Robert Grosseteste, the "seint Roberd” of later English sectarian language, asked to define heresy, replied "Heresy in its Greek etymology means 'choice': it is a choice made for human ends, contrary to Holy Scripture, openly declared, and stubbornly maintained.” 1 Such a definition, one which diverged slightly from the normal canonists' formulation, 2 is worth pondering in regard to the "heresy" which was discerned in England, and subsequently in Bohemia, following (post hoc or propter hoc remaining an issue of contention) the teaching of John Wyclif. Two elements are notable:first a presence, namely, the declared stress on "choice," a choice made in Grosseteste's formulation by the perpetrator; and second an absence, the lack of any specification of agency responsible for the definition of what is "contrary to Holy Scripture, ” or of deciding whether it has been "openly declared and stubbornly maintained.” Grosseteste's implication in regard to the second, the absence, is perhaps clearer than in regard to the first:though no unquestioning servant of his ecclesiastical superiors, Grosseteste would surely have defined the agency of discernment to have been the Church, as embodied in the pope, ecclesiastical law and its ministers. Heresy, as has long been a truism, is defined by its opponents.3 An example from the earlier period makes this particularly clear: the kind of mission envisaged by Francis of Assisi was given papal approval and acceptance, whilst the ostensibly similar aims of Peter Waldes of Lyons were first questioned and finally hereticated. 4 The fluctuating fortunes of the "rigorist" understanding of Francis's Rule and Testament (mentioned here by Clopper) provide another instructive example. For the heresy which came to be regarded as characteristically English this is particularly clear: from the Blackfriars' Council of 1382 onwards, the ecclesiastical authorities produced lists of condemned conclusions which formed the basis for enquiry into a suspect's orthodoxy ― those authorities

____________________
1
Reported in R.W. Southern, Robert Grosseteste: the Growth of an English Mind in Medieval Europe (Oxford: Clarendon, 1986), 292―3.
2
Southern gives the example of Hostiensis in Aurea summa where a heretic is one "qui aliter sentit de articulis fidei quam Romana ecclesia.” 3 This has been stressed recently, for instance by R.N. Swanson (1166) [the italicized number refers to the numbered reference in the Selected Bibliography, 251―310 below].
4
See E. Cameron, Waldenses: Rejections of Holy Church in Medieval Europe (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000), 20―1.

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Lollards and Their Influence in Late Medieval England
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 344

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.