There are many people who helped me put this project together and whom I would like to thank. I am most indebted to the NAACP and the National Urban League for their permission to reprint material from The Crisis and Opportunity. Without their generous support, I would not have been able to proceed. I would also like to thank them for persevering throughout the bulk of the twentieth century with their efforts to bring African American issues to the fore with their magazines and with courageous legal and journalistic actions challenging segregation and racism. Both organizations have been important as well in fostering the arts through publishing black writers who would otherwise not have found a national venue. African American literature would be much the poorer without their vision and commitment.
Scholars of African American women's literature and the history of World War II have been instrumental in laying the groundwork for this project. Among the most central to my wartime research for this volume have been Jacqueline Jones, Paula Giddings, Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo, Darlene Clark Hine, Ruth Milkman, Sherna Gluck, Susan Hartmann, Sonya Michel, Susan Schweik, Neil Wynn, and Karen Anderson (whose friendship over the years has helped sustain me as well). I am indebted to the recovery work of Lorraine Roses, Ruth Randolph, Elizabeth Ammons, Mary Helen Washington, Ann Allen Shockley, Gloria Hull, Claudia Tate, Hazel Carby, and Erlene Stetson, who have edited important anthologies of black women's writings in the early twentieth century. Deborah McDowell, Barbara Christian, Cheryl Wall, Amaritjit Singh, Nathan Huggins, Arnold Rampersad, David Levering Lewis, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and others have helped lay the foundation for such scholarship. They have inspired my own recovery work in this important medium. Ronald and Abby Arthur Johnson made it possible for me to contextualize the wartime ﬁction included here, as well as to ﬁnd out important information about Negro Story, in their groundbreaking analysis of the literary politics in these magazines. Similarly, Stanley Nelson's powerful new ﬁlm on the black press gave me a sense of the key role played by African American journalists in their communities. A crucial reference work in this regard was Walter Daniel's exhaustive compilation of circulation ﬁgures, editorial history, and publication dates for every African American journal ever created in Black Journals of the United States. Finally, the research of Thomas Cripps and Donald Bogle