Foundations of Evidence-Based Medicine

By Milos Jenicek | Go to book overview

Index
Numbers in bold indicate pages where fundamental definitions of terms can be found.
a
absolute benefit increase 236
absolute risk increase 236
actuarial judgment 290
actuarial survival assessment method 280
adolescent health indicators 100
algorithms 360-364
see also clinical algorithms
alternative medicines 250
analysis by cohort 176-177
see also cohort studies
analytical studies 70, 71, 185, 231, 314
arborization 21-22,116
arguments 48-49,329-333
architecture and basic validity rules 335-337
deductive argument 50,332
fallacies 333-335
improvement of 335-336
inductive argument 50
logical argumentation in medicine 329-333
use of in fuzzy logic applications 336-338
see also logic;
reasoning
art of medicine 5-6
associations 186-188
asymmetrical 187
consistency of 191
dose-response relationship 190-191
prerequisites of a causal proof 188-189
specificity of 191
indices 192
strength of 190
indices 192
symmetrical 187
asymptomatic stage 153
attack rates 91-92
secondary attack rates 91-92
attractors 56
attributable risk 192, 198
across studies 308-310
auxometry of disease 154
axiology 30

b
best evidence synthesis 313
bias 206,188, 241, 333
detection bias 208
protopathic bias 208
susceptibility bias 206-208
systematic bias 206
biographical life histories 29
biological gradient 190-191
reverse gradient 191
biological markers 212
biostatistics 26-27, 38
birth rate 97
blinding 240, 242-243
box-score analysis 302
brought-forward time 210

c
case-control studies 71, 199-202, 205
advantages and disadvantages of 202
disease occurrence 201-202
hybrid study designs 202
information provided 199-200
matched pairs case-control studies 200-201
number needed to harm (NNH) 202
specificity of causal relationship 201
see also causal studies
case fatality rate (CFR) 84,88-89, 277
case reports 71, 149-164
completion of 158-160
architecture 160
clinimetric considerations 160
direction 160
disease history and course 150-158
clinical stages 153-156
convalescence, recovery and outcomes 156-157
infectious diseases 157
preclinical stages 152-153
ongoing clinical case reports 160-161
case series reports 149, 161-164
case series studies 71, 158, 161-164
meta-analyses 163
case studies 29-30,158
see also case reports;
case series studies;
case-control studies
casuistics 159
categorical syllogism 49
causal studies 71, 185-186
advanced quantitative methods 209-213
studying genetic factors as causes 212-213
studying more than one causal factor 209-210
studying relationships between causal factors 210-212
meta-analysis 316-317
outbreaks of disease 213, 214-216

-385-

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