Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, 1948-1991

By Kenneth M. Pollack | Go to book overview

AFTERWORD

Since 1991, the Middle East has hardly been pacific. Seen as a whole, the region has continued to breed turmoil and conflict. In many cases, the names changed, but the stories remained largely the same.

In 1994 civil war broke out in Yemen, leading ultimately to a victory by the former north over the former south. Sudan and Algeria also experienced terrible internal struggles throughout the decade, although both appear to be slowly emerging from their civil strife, if only because all of the various parties are exhausted. Hizballah continued its long guerrilla struggle with Israel, provoking Jerusalem to unleash a storm of air and artillery strikes against targets in Lebanon during Operation Grapes of Wrath in 1996 but eventually convincing Jerusalem to withdraw troops from Lebanon altogether in 2000. Meanwhile, Hamas, Islamic Jihad, and other Palestinian terrorist groups carried on their deadly campaign against Israel, leading to the outbreak of the al-Aqsa intifadah in October 2000.

And then there was Iraq. No sooner had the Gulf War ended in March 1991 than Iraq too was wracked by civil war. Believing that Saddam's army had been crushed and that the Americans were ready to aid them, the Shi'ah in the south and the Kurds in the north rose up against his regime. But Saddam's Republican Guard was not as dead it had looked, and the hoped- for assistance never came. Within weeks the Iraqi regime had bloodily suppressed both revolts and regained power.

After Saddam had reasserted his control over the country he began to push back against the United Nations and the United States, fighting the containment regime imposed by the Security Council and enforced by Washington. Throughout the 1990s Iraq's aggressive resistance prompted a series of clashes and near-clashes—including several American cruise missile strikes after Iraq threatened to end cooperation with the UN in 1993,

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Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, 1948-1991
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Arabs at War - Military Effectiveness, 1948—1991 *
  • Contents *
  • Maps *
  • Tables *
  • Preface *
  • Acknowledgments *
  • Understanding Modern Arab Military Effectiveness *
  • 1 - Egypt *
  • 2 - Iraq *
  • 3 - Jordan *
  • 4 - Libya *
  • 5 - Saudi Arabia *
  • 6 - Syria *
  • Conclusions and Lessons *
  • Afterword *
  • Notes *
  • Selected Bibliography *
  • Index *
  • In Studies in War, Society, and the Military *
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