I wish to thank my father, Tetsuo Aoki, and my friend and colleague, Satoshi Ikeda, for their invaluable assistance and advice. I benefited greatly from the careful and gracious reading by Serra Tinic. Finally, it need not be said, but must be acknowledged, that this chapter could not have come to be without my mother, June Yuriko Aoki.
These different but parallel “citations” of my mother's face prefigure motherhood as passage, discussed below.
Saussure's structuralist diagram places the concept (signified) over the sound-image (signifier). de Saussure, 66-67.
Appropriation is immanent to language in at least two ways that devolve from the fact that we are born into a language that precedes us. First, we must appropriate language and its histories in order to use it-hence the popularity of using masterful and kindred terms to praise excellent speakers and writers. Second, from a French theoretical or postructuralist point of view, language appropriates us. That is, language is constitutive of subjectivity.
I owe this insight to Carole Robitaille.
My mother did this calligraphy before the kore ga oitoma, and before she had her strokes.
The status of sho/ “written by” incarnates the status of Japanese calligraphy as simultaneously art and text. In the West, artists, not authors, conventionally sign their works, and authors, not artists, have “by, ” as an abbreviation for “written by, ” inscribed in the front of their books and attached to their names (although not their signatures). Japanese calligraphers do both.
In shifting from authorship to writing, what becomes pertinent are exactly the questions that Foucault raises at the end of “What Is an Author?”: “What are the modes of existence of this discourse?”; “How is it circulated?”; and “What placements are determined for possible subjects?” (Foucault, 138).
Althusser, L. “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses.” In Lenin and Philosophyand Other Essays, Translated by B. Brewster. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1971.
Bennington, G. “Derridabase.” In Jacques Derrida, edited by G. Bennington and Jacques Derrida. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Butler, J. The Psychic Life of Power. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997.
Dahlberg, E. Because I Was Flesh: The Autobiography of Edward Dahlberg. New York: New Directions. Cited in S. Neuman “Your Past . . . Your Future: Autobiography
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Mothers & Sons: Feminism, Masculinity, and the Struggle to Raise Our Sons.
Contributors: Andrea O'Reilly - Editor.
Place of publication: New York.
Publication year: 2001.
Page number: 263.
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