The Church in Ancient Society: From Galilee to Gregory the Great

By Henry Chadwick | Go to book overview

44 Schism at Antioch: The Council of Constantinople (381)

Paulinus of Antioch and the Eustathian Group

The split in the church at Antioch went back to the time of the council of Nicaea, soon after which, perhaps as early as 327, Bishop Eustathius of Antioch was deposed for conduct unbecoming and for discourtesy to the emperor's mother Helena on pilgrimage to the holy places. A congregation loyal to his memory met separately in 'the old church' in the city, while the main body worshipped elsewhere, after 341 in the fine building begun under Constantine and dedicated in that year. They were led by a presbyter named Paulinus. When Leontius was bishop in the fifties, the separate congregations were able to meet together for devotions other than the eucharistic liturgy, but did not share communion.

Paulinus' congregation, however, was recognized as the true church of Antioch by Athanasius of Alexandria and by Rome. This western and Alexandrian recognition became a difficulty after 360 when Meletius became bishop. Being rejected by Eudoxius and his friends, he soon supported the Nicene creed; there were then two Nicene congregations in the same city. They were theologically divided, however, by the fact that, like Basil of Caesarea and his Cappadocian friends, Meletius with his homoian background was sympathetic to saying that the Trinity is 'three hypostases', which asserted the independence of Father, Son, and Spirit and which had formed part of the central eastern bishops' programme since 341. In strict accord with the Nicene anathema, Paulinus insisted (like Marcellus of Ankyra, with whom he had compromising correspondence) on only one hypostasis. He thought Meletius a hypocrite, since he pretended to profess Nicene faith when expressly glossing the creed to say that the Son is 'like' the Father: 'the kingdom of God is like a grain of mustard seed, but not much.' Moreover, when Athanasius visited Antioch (probably on return from Jovian at Hierapolis in 363), Meletius did not share communion with him (Basil, ep. 89; 258), a decision fateful for the future. Politically communion with Athanasius in 363 could have been highly disadvantageous. Perhaps Meletius

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The Church in Ancient Society: From Galilee to Gregory the Great
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • The Church in Ancient Society iii
  • Prefatory Note vi
  • Contents vii
  • Abbreviations ix
  • Introduction 1
  • 1: The First Followers of Jesus 5
  • 2: The Jewish Matrix 13
  • 3: Jews and Christians Survive Rome's Crushing of Revolts 21
  • 4: The Hebrew Scriptures in the Church 27
  • 5: Interpreting Scripture 32
  • 6: Apostles and Evangelists 43
  • 7: Women Among Jesus' Followers 53
  • 8: 'Barnabas', Jewish Christianity, Trouble at Corinth 56
  • 9: Ignatius of Antioch 65
  • 10: Didache 84
  • 11: Marcion 89
  • 12: Justin 93
  • 13: Irenaeus of Lyon 100
  • 14: The New Testament Text 108
  • 15: Celsus: A Platonist Attack 110
  • 16: Montanism: Perpetua 114
  • 17: Tertullian, Minucius Felix 118
  • 18: Clement of Alexandria 124
  • 19: Julius Africanus 130
  • 20: Hippolytus and Liturgy 132
  • 21: Origen 135
  • 22: Cyprian of Carthage 145
  • 23: Dionysius of Alexandria 161
  • 24: Paul of Samosata 166
  • 25: Mani 170
  • 26: Plotinus, Porphyry 173
  • 27: Diocletian and the Great Persecution; Rise of Constantine 176
  • 28: Constantine 190
  • 29: The Seeds of Reaction 201
  • 30: The Church at Prayer 212
  • 31: Athanasius, Marcellus, and the Gathering Storm 226
  • 32: A Fiasco at Serdica 240
  • 33: Religious Division 254
  • 34: Athanasius' Return 260
  • 35: Constantius' Double Council of Unity 279
  • 36: Julian and the Church 295
  • 37: Damasus, Siricius, Papal Authority, Synesius of Cyrene 314
  • 38: Basil of Caesarea (Cappadocia) 331
  • 39: Ambrose 348
  • 40: Ambrosiaster 379
  • 41: Donatism 382
  • 42: Monks: The Ascetic Life 394
  • 43: Messalians 411
  • 44: Schism at Antioch 415
  • 45: Jerome and Rufinus 433
  • 46: Pelagius, Caelestius, and the Roman See in Gaul and North Africa 446
  • 47: Julian of Eclanum 464
  • 48: Augustine 473
  • 49: John Chrysostom 479
  • 50: Innocent I and John Chrysostom's Honour 499
  • 51: The Christological Debate, I 515
  • 52: The Christological Debate, Ii 538
  • 53: The Christological Debate, Iii 557
  • 54: The Aftermath of the Council of Chalcedon 592
  • 55: Justinian, Origen, and the 'Three Chapters' 612
  • 56: The Ancient Oriental Churches 628
  • 57: The Church and the Barbarian Invasions in the West 633
  • 58: Pope Gregory the Great (590-604) 658
  • 59: Worship After Constantine 675
  • 60: Pilgrims 684
  • 61: Penance 688
  • Further Reading 694
  • Dates of Roman Emperors 714
  • Index 721
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