access to education, their continuation relied upon the state largesse that the high oil rents had provided. Data on income inequality are not available, but the windfall deployment opened a wide gap between the well-connected elite of 1 per cent of the population with wealth estimated at $400 billion and the small farmers of the Southeast along with those entering the workforce as public sector opportunities are reined back. The worker/dependency ratio remains very high at around 0.79 (see Table 2.4). As conditions deteriorate for the poorest in Saudi society, the rent deployment strategy may also prove to have been socially unsustainable (David 1999). Indeed, the principal flaw in the Saudi deployment of its oil windfalls may turn out to be the failure of paternalism to build public social capital (see Table 9.4).
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