Theory and Practice of Excise Taxation: Smoking, Drinking, Gambling, Polluting, and Driving

By Sijbren Cnossen | Go to book overview
15.
Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs, 2001.
16.
Another way to put this into perspective is to note that male mortality rates were uniformly more than 50 per cent higher than female rates in Britain in 1999 and 150 per cent higher for men aged 25-34, though female life expectancy is only 7 per cent higher despite women's considerably lower mortality risk.
17.
For example, for a person at a distance d metres, the term −ln(d/13.5) is added. Presumably the use of average traffic flows implies that this is the relevant average noise for measuring average noise nuisance.
18.
The conceptual experiment is thus across roads of similar traffic and speed. Clearly, increasing traffic is likely to reduce speed on any given road.

References

Arnott, R. (2002), 'Comments on “Road user and congestion charges” by D. Newbery', Boston College, mimeo, April.

Atkinson, A. B., and Stiglitz, J. E. (1980), Lectures on Public Economics, Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.

Bovenberg, A. L., and Goulder, L. H. (1996), 'Optimal environmental taxation in the presence of other taxes: general equilibrium analyses', American Economic Review, 86: 985-1000.

Calthrop, E., and Proost, S. (1998), 'Road transport externalities: interaction between theory and empirical research', Environmental and Resource Economics, 11: 335-48.

Corlett, W. J., and Hague, D. C. (1953), 'Complementarity and the excess burden of taxation', Review of Economic Studies, 21: 21-30.

Deaton, A. (1987), 'Econometric issues for tax design in developing countries', in D. M. Newbery and N. Stern (eds), The Theory of Taxation for Developing Countries, New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

—— and Stern, N. (1986), 'Optimally uniform commodity taxes, taste differences and lump-sum grants', Economics Letters, 20: 263-6.

Delucchi, M. (1997), The Annualized Social Cost of Motor-Vehicle Use in the U.S., 1990-91: Summary of Theory, Methods, Data and Results, Davis, CA: Institute for Transportation Studies.

Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (2001), Digest of Environmental Statistics. Available at www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/des/index.htm.

Department for Transport (2002), Highway Economics Note No. 1: 2000. Available at www.roads.dft.gov.uk/roadsafety/hen2000/index.htm.

Department of Transport (1988), Calculation of Road Traffic Noise, London: DoT.

—— (1996), Transport Statistics Great Britain 1996 edition, London: DoT.

Department of Transport, Local Government, and the Regions (2001), Transport Statistics Great Britain 2001 edition, London: DTLR.

Diamond, P. A., and Mirrlees, J. A. (1971), 'Optimal taxation and public production, I: production efficiency', American Economic Review, 61: 8-27.

Drake, G. (2000), An Established Privatised Road Maintenance and Operation System: A Government Perspective, London: Highways Agency.

EF&EE (2002), Sri Lanka Vehicle Emissions Control Project: Inception Report, Sacramento, CA: Engine, Fuel, and Emissions Engineering, Inc.

Eichenberger, R. (1999), 'Mit direketer Demokratie zu besserer Wirtschafts- und Finanzpolitik: Theorie und Empriie,' in H. H. von Arnim (Hrsg.), Adäquate Institu-

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