BUILDING SERVICE SYSTEMS
Limits on Energy Efficiency in Office BuildingsMahadev Raman
1.0 OVERVIEWMany sophisticated computer tools exist to calculate building energy demand but while they provide good levels of accuracy, they lack the flexibility to quickly compare a large number of scenarios. They also focus primarily on thermal performance for heating and cooling and do not easily allow other energy consuming systems to be compared and optimized. To assist with the rapid prediction and optimization of building energy consumption at an early stage in the building design process, a spreadsheet-based building energy analysis tool was developed. The spreadsheet calculates energy consumed by HVAC systems, lighting, office equipment, domestic water systems and elevators. It also includes a simple daylighting calculation to allow building façades to be optimized for both thermal and lighting performance. Many default values are included in order to minimize the amount of input data required. However, the spreadsheet format allows the user to customize the calculations used without the need for programming knowledge. A further feature of the spreadsheet is that it allows the performance of Building Integrated Photovoltaic panels (BIPV's) to be evaluated. After briefly describing features of the spreadsheet, this paper presents results obtained in the following applications:
|• To chart the history of energy consumption in office buildings over the last 50 years. |
|• To identify limits to energy conservation in office buildings given current and imminent advances in building technology. |
|• To explore the likely contribution from BIPV's to offset energy consumption. |
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Book title: Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat: Cities in the Third Millennium.
Contributors: Council On Tall Buildings And Urban Habitat - OrganizationName.
Publisher: Spon Press.
Place of publication: New York.
Publication year: 2001.
Page number: 575.
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