Unemployment Compensation throughout the World: A Comparative Analysis

By Wayne Vroman; Vera Brusentsev | Go to book overview

Notes
1.
The relationship between the unemployment rate and output was first proposed by Arthur Okun in 1962 and became known as Okun's Law. Okun's Law states that each percentage-point rise in unemployment is associated with a two-percent- age point reduction in the annual growth of real GDP.
2.
The Thirteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians adopted a stan- dard definition of unemployment that is applied by member countries. The unem- ployed comprise all persons above a specified age who during the reference period were: 1) without work, 2) currently available for work, and 3) seeking work. See Volume 4: Employment, unemployment, wages and hours of work (administrative and related data), http://laborsta.ilo.org. National definitions of unemployment, however, may differ from the recommended international standard definition. The national definitions used vary from one country to another with regards to age limits, criteria for seeking work, reference periods, and treatment of persons tem- porarily laid off and of persons seeking work for the first time.
3.
The term Western Asia is more geographically accurate than the Middle East even though Middle East remains the more common usage.
4.
The low average in East and South Asia is obtained despite the inclusion of Japan and other high-income countries from this area. The demographic weight of Ban- gladesh, China, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan predominate in overall average per- capita output for this region.
5.
A t-ratio of 2.0 or larger is the normal criteria for significance in a test at the 0.05 level.
6.
A parallel analysis was conducted of inflation in the Consumer Price Index with results practically identical to those for the GDP deflator.
7.
Inflation since 1995 has been much lower in South American countries than it was during the period from 1970 to 1995. However, given their history, there remains the risk of high inflation in future years.
8.
The rule of 70 is a shorthand way to compute the time required for a value grow- ing at a constant geometric rate to double. Doubling time is the ratio of 70 to the percentage growth rate. For example, 70/2.6 = 26.9 years.
9.
Interestingly, China's growth rate of 10.0 percent for the 17 available years of data (1979—1995) exceeded that of all five Asian tigers.
10.
Table 2.4 identifies two periods when the number of independent countries in- creased sharply. During the 1950s and 1960s the number increased as the Euro- pean colonial empires were dismantled. The country counts increased most noticeably in Sub-Saharan Africa, from 3 in 1949 to 36 in 1969. During these two decades measurable increases also occurred in East and South Asia (from 15 to 20) and in North Africa and the Middle East (from 11 to 16). The rate of change was comparatively slow during the 1970s and 1980s with the emergence of only seven new countries. The pace then increased during the 1990s with the FSU break-up and developments in the CEE causing most of the increase between 1989 (129) and 1999 (150). During these five decades the only change in the

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Unemployment Compensation throughout the World: A Comparative Analysis
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Unemployment Compensation Throughout the World - A Comparative Analysis *
  • Contents v
  • Figures vii
  • Tables viii
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • Notes 6
  • Part 1 - A Global Perspective *
  • 2 - Economic Performance and Unemployment 9
  • Notes 42
  • 3 - Unemployment Protection 45
  • Notes 75
  • Part 2 - Regional Aspects of Unemployment Protection *
  • 4 - Unemployment Compensation in the Oecd-20 Countries 81
  • Notes 106
  • 5 - Unemployment Compensation in the Cee-Fsu Countries 109
  • Notes 125
  • 6 - Unemployment Compensation in East and South Asia 127
  • Notes 143
  • 7 - Unemployment Compensation in Latin American and Caribbean Countries 145
  • Notes 165
  • Part 3 - Problem Areas for Unemployment Compensation Programs *
  • 8 - Three Problem Areas for Unemployment Compensation Programs 169
  • Notes 210
  • 9 - Conclusion 213
  • Appendix A - Labor Market Data for 150 Countries 219
  • Appendix B - Output Changes and Employment Changes 227
  • Notes 232
  • Appendix C - Regression Estimates of Uc Benefit Generosity 233
  • Appendix D - Uc Provisions and Uc Costs in Cee-Fsu Countries 235
  • Appendix E - Determinants of Long-Term Unemployment Percentages 245
  • Notes 252
  • References 253
  • The Authors 259
  • Index 261
  • About the Institute 273
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