Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: South East Asia, East Asia and the South Pacific - Vol. 2

By Dieter Nohlen; Florian Grotz et al. | Go to book overview

Japan

by Axel Klein*


1 Introduction

1.1 Historical Overview

Japan is Asia's oldest and most stable democracy. In the early stages, given the restrictions on suffrage and parliamentary powers, elections could hardly fulfil their democratic function. Their contribution to the country's political development began after 1945. Several reforms have been introduced so far into the electoral systems of both parliamentary chambers, with the aim of enhancing the voters' choices and cutting down the influence of clientelistic networks in politics.

The national diet was constituted in 1889, yet universal suffrage and the current parliamentary system were not introduced until after World War II, under American occupation. In the course of these post-war reforms the military, bureaucracy and nobility were stripped off the wide powers they had enjoyed in the pre-war period, and the Emperor (Tennô) was given a merely formal role in the parliamentary and legislative processes.

The Constitution, promulgated in November 1946 and in force since May 1947, stipulates that the bicameral diet is to consist of the House of Representatives, with more political power and influence, and the House of Councilors, a directly elected chamber similar to the Senate of the United States of America. Bills need the approval of both houses to be passed, but a two-third majority of the House of Representatives can override a rejection of the House of Councilors. Decisions regarding the State budget, however, need only the approval of the House of Representatives.

During the first months after the war, many old political parties were re-established and new parties grounded. Thus, before December 1945 the Japan Socialist Party (JSP, Nihon Shakai Tô), the Japan Liberal Party (JLP, Nihon Jiyû Tô), the Japan Progressive Party (JPP, Nihon Shinpo

-355-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: South East Asia, East Asia and the South Pacific - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Elections in Asia and the Pacific i
  • Preface iii
  • Contents v
  • Notes on Editors and Contributors vii
  • Technical Notes xiii
  • South East Asia 45
  • Brunei 47
  • Cambodia 53
  • Indonesia 83
  • Laos 129
  • Malaysia 143
  • Singapore 239
  • Thailand 261
  • Vietnam 321
  • East Asia 343
  • China (People's Republic) 345
  • Japan 355
  • Korea (Democratic People's Republic/ North Korea) 395
  • Korea (Republic of Korea/ South Korea) 411
  • Taiwan (Republic of China) 525
  • The South Pacific 571
  • Australia 573
  • Cook Islands 621
  • Federated States of Micronesia 633
  • Fiji Islands 643
  • Kiribati 673
  • Marshall Islands 687
  • New Zealand 705
  • Palau 741
  • Papua New Guinea 763
  • Samoa 779
  • Solomon Islands 795
  • Tonga 809
  • Tuvalu 823
  • Vanuatu 833
  • Glossary 849
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 858

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.