Absentee voting:Under an absentee voting provision a person entitled to vote and unable or unwilling to go to the assigned polling station on election day may still cast his/ her vote. Voting takes place before election day by mail or before or on election day at a different and sometimes special polling station than the one originally assigned. In the special case of external or overseas voting, embassies and military bases function also as polling stations for absentees. In most cases there is an application deadline for absentee voting before the elections. In electoral systems with more than one constituency it deserves special attention to which constituency absentee and especially overseas ballots are added.
Absolute majority system:An electoral system in which a candidate becomes elected if he or she has received more than half of the valid votes. If no candidate reaches the necessary absolute majority, run-offs usually ensue, often among a reduced number of candidates (e.g. the candidate with the lowest number of votes is excluded, or only the two candidates with the highest shares of votes participate). In the run-off, the plurality system may replace the absolute majority. In order to avoid a run-off, the winner can be determined by the alternative vote system.
Alternative vote (system):An electoral system in which voters rank candidates according to their preferences. The decision-rule is the absolute majority of first preference votes. If no candidate obtains the necessary absolute majority, the candidate with the lowest number of first preference votes is eliminated, and his/ her votes are redistributed among the remaining candidates on the basis of the voters' second preferences. This procedure is repeated until one candidate obtains an absolute majority.
Binomial system:An electoral system in which all MPs are elected in two-member-constituencies on a closed and non-blocked list of parties or electoral alliances, i.e. each elector has one vote. The decision rule is