The Rise of Mental Health Nursing: A History of Psychiatric Care in Dutch Asylums, 1890-1920

By Geertje Boschma | Go to book overview
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Notes

Notes to Introduction

Notes to Introduction
1
Van Drenth and De Haan emphasize how care is a highly gendered notion, commonly referring to activities connoted “feminine”, but not intrinsically linked only to women. Men also played an important role in public care. Yet at the same time the authors pur- posely focus on women in their historical analysis of the rise of caring power in order to highlight the historical nature of the link between women and care. See Van Drenth and De Haan, The Rise of Caring Power, 12. For the relational dimensions of gender forma- tion, see also McPherson, Morgan, and Forestell, Gendered Pasts, 5-6.-
2
Van Drenth and De Haan, The Rise of Caring Power, 23-36, 47-50.
3
Eijt, Religieuze vrouwen; Klijn, Tussen caritas en psychiatrie.
4
Ellemers, “Pillarization.” For the term “segmental cleavages”, see Lijphart, Democracy in Plural Societies, 3-5, 25-52.
5
For an excellent political history on the Netherlands, see Kossmann, De Lage Landen. For the political transformations in the mid-nineteenth century, see in this work, 216-98. For the naming of the pillars, see Lijphart, Democracy in Plural Societies, 15.
6
Ibid., 3-4.
7
J. E. Ellemers, “Pillarization”, 129. For further discussion of the process of Verzuiling (pillarization), see Lijphart, The Politics of Accommodation; Stuurman, Verzuiling, Kapi- talisme en Patriarchaat; Righart, De katholieke zuil in Europa.
8
Kossmann, De lage landen, 289-98.
9
Van Loo, Den arme gegeven, 28-30, 53-60; De Jonge, Geschiedenis van het Moderne Neder- land; idem, De Industrialisatie in Nederland; Van Tijn, “Het Sociale Leven in Nederland.” 10 Ibid.
11
See Verslag van het Staatstoezicht, 1888-90, 103-5. Artisans and workers were also involved in the supervision of patients who worked in workshops, the garden, or the kitchen. The term “nurse” (verplegende) began to be used in the 1890s. See Verslag van het Staatstoezicht, 1891-93, 166-67.
12
See, for example, Artikel 28 and 29, “Instructie voor het dagelijksch bestuur van het geneeskundig Gesticht voor Krankzinnigen te Franeker (1852)”, in Instructiën en veror- deningen, 1886.
13
The most literal translation of krankzinnigenverplegende would be “nurse of the insane.” However, “mental nurse” seems to be a more accurate and common translation. The term “mental nursing” was used by the British association of psychiatrists, the Medico- Psychological Association, which established a national training and examination scheme for asylum attendants in Britain in 1890. See Nolan, “Psychiatric Nursing Past and Present”, 33-34, 123-25. The term “psychiatric nurse” (psychiatrisch verpleegkundige) was not common in the Netherlands until the second half of the twentieth century. See Goudswaard, Inleiding tot de geschiedenis van de verpleegkunst, 143; Kramer, Geschiedenis, 144.

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