I am indebted to several institutions for their support--monetary and otherwise--throughout this project. I acknowledge the financial support of the Charles Warren Center for Studies in American History at Harvard University, the United States Institute of Peace, the Academy of Finland (Suomen Akatemia), the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC), the Boston University Graduate School, the Boston University Department of History, the Truman Library Institute, and the Eisenhower World Affairs Institute. The staffs at the National Archives in Washington, D.C., the Truman Library in Independence, Missouri, and the Eisenhower Library in Abilene, Kansas, were extremely generous with their time. The same is true of the archivists at the Valtionarkisto Finnish National Archives and the Ulkoasiainministeriön arkisto Foreign Ministry Archives, both located in Helsinki, Finland, and the staff at the Public Records Office in Kew, Surrey, England.
Portions of this book have previously appeared in Scandinavian Journal of History, Diplomatic History, and International History Review The permission to reprint these parts is gratefully acknowledged.
Throughout the preparation of this manuscript I have benefited immensely from the help and wisdom of friends and scholars on both sides of the Atlantic. Above all, I am grateful to my academic advisor and good friend, Arnold A. Offner, currently of Lafayette College, who guided me through this project's first stage as a Ph.D. dissertation at Boston University and has remained a supportive and meticulous critic as well as a good friend ever since. I also extend my gratitude to Keith W. Olson and