Encyclopedia of American Folk Art

By Gerard C.Wertkin; Lee Kogan | Go to book overview

Bowman, Russell. Driven to Create: The Anthony Petullo Collection of Self-Taught Art. Milwaukee, Wisc., 1993.
Guis, L.R. Outsider Art: Creating Outside the Lines. New York, 2001.









the first director of the Whitney Museum of American Art, was one of the earliest collectors of many varieties of American folk art, objects, and crafts. Her endorsement of the field led to the first public exhibition of folk art in the United States. Her advocacy of the folk idiom, in turn, was grounded in her wider professional aim of gaining recognition for American art.

Born in Doylestown, Pennsylvania to German immigrants, Juliana Rieser was always attached to Pennsylvania and its arts and crafts. About 1907 she met the sculptor and art patron, Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, and became the manager of Whitney's art enterprises in New York City. In 1912 Juliana Rieser married Willard Burdette Force, a dentist; two years later, the Forces bought a farm in Holicong, Pennsylvania, close to Doylestown. Juliana Force became a collector of folk art when she set up housekeeping in the country. Drawn to objects representing rural life in Bucks County, she began collecting Pennsylvania German cabinetry, and went on to acquire still-lifes, portraits, theorem paintings on velvet, vernacular sculpture, hand-carved toys, chalkware, quilts, and hooked rugs.

Although Force entered the field as an off shoot of her decorating, folk art also appealed to her as a manifestation of a vital American culture that she and her employer were working so tirelessly to validate. Force equated folk art with other examples of once ignored or disenfranchised expressions of artists flourishing outside official or academic channels. These independent artists, living and dead, were exactly the ones that Whitney and Force championed through exhibitions and purchases.

The initial public manifestation of Force's intent to elevate the aesthetic standing of folk art and establish a kinship with contemporary art was presented at the Whitney Studio Club, a precursor of the Whitney Museum, from February 9-24, 1924. "Early American Art," the first public showing of folk art in America, was organized by Force's friend, the painter Henry Schnakenberg (1892-1970). In February 1927, the club exhibited the collection of the New England dealer Isabel Carleton Wilde.

In late 1929 Gertrude Whitney (1875-1942) and Juliana Force decided to establish a museum wholly devoted to American art, and the Whitney Museum of American Art opened on November 18, 1931. Force donated most of her nineteenth-century folk paintings and works on paper to the museum, which showed them in March 1932, in "Provincial Paintings of the Nineteenth Century." Of the fifty-three paintings and eleven watercolors and pastels on view, at least fifty-five works were Force's gifts. These works, along with nearly all of the rest of the Whitney's nineteenth-century holdings, were sold by the museum after Force's death.

See also African American Folk Art (Vernacular Art); Chalkware; Juliana Force; Hooked Rugs; Painting, Theorem; Pennsylvania German Folk Art; Quilts; Quilts, African American; Sculpture, Folk; Still-life Painting; Toys, Folk.

Berman, Avis. Rebels on Eighth Street: Juliana Force and the Whitney Museum of American Art. New York, 1990.
--. "Juliana Force and Folk Art." The Magazine Antiques, vol. 136, no. 3 (September 1989): 542-553.



is a twentieth-century term used to describe the folk art drawings made by the Pennsylvania Germans from the 1740s to the present. The word properly describes a typeface and related penmanship, but first came into American usage as a verb meaning "fancily written," and later as a noun to describe a body of work that recalled the tradition of illuminated manuscripts from medieval cloisters. That link cannot be satisfactorily established, but there are clear connections to European peasant practices in the eighteenth century and earlier. In some Swiss cantons, schoolmasters made fancy documents at the end of the school term, and from these vorschriften (writing examples) developed. At about the same time in Alsace, the German area of the Palatinate region in the eighteenth century, and in other parts of Switzerland, baptismal sponsors or godparents gave gifts intended for children wrapped in a greeting called a goettelbriefe, which usually named the child and wished him or her well. In Pennsylvania and


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Encyclopedia of American Folk Art
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Entries vii
  • Introduction xxvii
  • A 1
  • B 35
  • Bibliography 75
  • C 79
  • Bibliography 107
  • Bibliography 111
  • D 113
  • Bibliography 144
  • E 145
  • Bibliography 153
  • F 161
  • Bibliography 166
  • Bibliography 171
  • G 189
  • Bibliography 203
  • Bibliography 210
  • H 217
  • Bibliography 225
  • Bibliography 235
  • I 247
  • Bibliography 249
  • J 251
  • K 269
  • Bibliography 273
  • L 279
  • M 293
  • Bibliography 309
  • Bibliography 311
  • N 337
  • O 349
  • P 355
  • Bibliography 388
  • Q 411
  • R 421
  • Bibliography 433
  • S 447
  • Bibliography 450
  • Bibliography 472
  • Bibliography 484
  • Bibliography 490
  • Bibliography 494
  • Bibliography 496
  • T 509
  • U 527
  • V 529
  • W 539
  • Bibliography 540
  • Bibliography 546
  • Bibliography 556
  • Y 561
  • Index 569


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