Encyclopedia of American Folk Art

By Gerard C.Wertkin; Lee Kogan | Go to book overview

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Belknap, Waldron Phoenix. American Colonial Painting: Materials for a History. Cambridge, Mass., 1959.
Black, Mary C. "Early Colonial Painting of the New York Province." in Remembrance of Patria: Dutch Arts and Culture in Colonial America, 1609-1776. Albany, N.Y., 1988.
--. "Remembrances of the Dutch Homeland in Early New York Provincial Painting." In Dutch Arts and Cultural in Colonial America: Proceedings of the Symposium, August 1986. Albany, N.Y., 1987.
--. Rivers, Bowery, Mill, and Beaver. New York, 1974.
--. "Tracking Down John Watson." American Arts and Antiques (October 1979): 78-85.

RODERIC H.BLACKBURN


WEATHER COCKS:

SEE WEATHERVANES.


WEATHERVANES

have been displayed on buildings since ancient times to add novelty to the built environment and indicate the direction from which the wind was blowing. Commonly called "weather cocks" before the late nineteenth century, the term referred to the popularity of cocks that were placed on church spires as a reminder to the faithful of Saint Peter's denial of Christ in the Bible: "I tell you, Peter, the cock will not crow this day until you three times deny that you know me" (Luke 22:34). The practice spread from England and the Continent to North America, and cocks subsequently appeared on churches throughout eastern Canada and the United States. In the eighteenth century, weathervanes grew to be a commonly seen feature on public buildings in coastal cities. Sometimes the design was a reflection or acknowledgement of the local culture or economy, such as a codfish in a city where many relied on fishing for their livelihoods. The gilt grasshopper that has perched atop Boston's Faneuil Hall since 1742 symbolizes good luck and was an apt image for the city's central market where local farmers came to sell their produce.

Mashamoquet Weathervane. New England, c. 1875; 43×60 inches.

Photo courtesy Allan Katz Americana, Woodbridge, Connecticut.

-546-

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Encyclopedia of American Folk Art
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Entries vii
  • Introduction xxvii
  • A 1
  • B 35
  • Bibliography 75
  • C 79
  • Bibliography 107
  • Bibliography 111
  • D 113
  • Bibliography 144
  • E 145
  • Bibliography 153
  • F 161
  • Bibliography 166
  • Bibliography 171
  • G 189
  • Bibliography 203
  • Bibliography 210
  • H 217
  • Bibliography 225
  • Bibliography 235
  • I 247
  • Bibliography 249
  • J 251
  • K 269
  • Bibliography 273
  • L 279
  • M 293
  • Bibliography 309
  • Bibliography 311
  • N 337
  • O 349
  • P 355
  • Bibliography 388
  • Q 411
  • R 421
  • Bibliography 433
  • S 447
  • Bibliography 450
  • Bibliography 472
  • Bibliography 484
  • Bibliography 490
  • Bibliography 494
  • Bibliography 496
  • T 509
  • U 527
  • V 529
  • W 539
  • Bibliography 540
  • Bibliography 546
  • Bibliography 556
  • Y 561
  • Index 569
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