Cubans in Tampa: From Exiles to Immigrants, 1892-1901
The Ten Years' War ( 1868-78) came to an unheralded end in the interior of Camagüey Province in eastern Cuba. A decade after the Grito de Yara, Cubans and Spaniards met in the remote village of Zanj≤n to put a formal, if only ceremonial, end to the ill-fated struggle for Cuban independence. The Pact of Zanj≤n in 1878 brought to an end one cycle of immigration and precipitated the onset of another.
The outbreak of hostilities in Cuba in 1868 set into motion the first in a series of population dislocations. Separatists unable to participate in the armed struggle, together with thousands of sympathizers seeking to escape the anticipated wrath of Spanish colonial administration, scattered throughout Europe, Latin America, and the United States. By the end of the first year of armed struggle, some 100,000 Cubans had sought refuge abroad.1
A peculiar broadcast fixed the distribution of Cuban emigration. A small group of separatists, largely of patrician origins, wealthy, and capable of enjoying a felicitous exile, settled in Europe. Other separatists, mostly middle-class professionals and businessmen, emigrated to New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. A third group, and by far the largest, consisted of Cuban workers. Unable to sustain exile without both employment and a dependable source of income, these workers tended to settle in the southeastern portion of the United States, most