Thomas Wyatt , 1503-42, son of Sir Henry, was born at Allington Castle, Kent, attended St. John's College, Cambridge, proceeded M.A. in 1520 and married Elizabeth Brooke the same year. His first sonnets probably date from 1527. Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey,? 1517-47, married Frances Vere, daughter of the Earl of Oxford, in 1532; his brief and reckless military career ended among charges of treason, for which he was beheaded. Wyatt travelled extensively on diplomatic missions in Europe, and Surrey spent most of 1532-3 at the French court. Samuel Daniel,? 1563-1619, was at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, in 1581, visited Italy later, and was tutor to William Herbert, son of the Earl of Pembroke, at Wilton. (Biographical details for Spenser and Sidney are prefixed to Chapters V and VI respectively.)

Works. Wyatt's poems exist in a number of manuscripts; some of his sonnets are in the anonymous Courte of Venus (c. 1557-8), and most, together with Surrey's, appeared in Tottel's Miscellany ( 1557). The pirated edition of Sidney Astrophel and Stella ( 1591) contained 28 of Daniel's sonnets, who published his own text of Delia in 1592 and 1594. Spenser Amoretti were published in 1595; Shakespeare's Sonnets in 1609, although two had been printed in The Passionate Pilgrim of 1599.

Modern Editions. The standard edition of Wyatt is by Kenneth Muir ( 1949), revised edition with additional poems in preparation; see also Muir "'Unpublished Poems of Sir Thomas Wyatt'" ( London Magazine, March 1960). F. M. Padelford edited Surrey Poems ( 1920; 1928). Modernized texts of Wyatt, Surrey, and Sidney are in G. Bullett Silver Poets . . . ( Everyman's Library, 1947). H. E. Rollins edited Tottel's Miscellany ( 2 vols., 1928); Sidney Lee Elizabethan Sonnets ( 2 vols., 1904) includes Daniel Delia; A. C. Sprague selected Daniel Poems ( 1930).

Scholarship and Criticism. Useful general studies are J. G. Scott Les Sonnets elisabethains ( 1929), L. C. John Elizabethan Sonnet Sequences ( 1938), and J. W. Lever's Elizabethan Love Sonnet ( 1956). Sergio Baldi comprehensively treats La Poesia di . . . Wyatt ( 1953). E. Hubler has written on The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets ( 1952) and T. W. Baldwin discussed the Literary Genetics of Shakespeare's Sonnets ( 1950), of which a highly individual study was made in G. Wilson Knight Mutual Flame ( 1955).


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