Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini: Totalitarianism in the Twentieth Century

By Bruce F. Pauley | Go to book overview

5 / PROPAGANDA, CULTURE,
AND EDUCATION

THE LIMITATIONS OF PROPAGANDA

Propaganda, culture, and education may at first glance appear to be three unlikely subjects to combine in a single chapter. Propaganda, it is usually assumed, consists of nothing but lies and gross exaggerations, whereas culture and education are reflections of truth, beauty, and enlightenment. In fact, however, the totalitarian parties did not make a big distinction between the three topics. Culture and education were propaganda in more subtle forms. Like propaganda, culture had to be simple enough that everyone could understand it. And like propaganda, the purpose of culture and education was to buttress the state and popularize its policies.

Propaganda is not a modern concept. It has existed since ancient times. Archaeologists and historians believe that Assyrian reliefs, showing the severed heads of enemies, were a form of propaganda intended to terrorize potential enemies. Julius Caesar’s literary account of campaigns in Gaul was propaganda to build up his political base in Rome. The Roman Catholic Church was the first to use the term during the Counter­Reformation in 1622. The first secular use of the word came during the Revolution of 1830 in France. Modern democracies do not hesitate to use propaganda; public schools, newspapers, radio, and television all make it easier for them to get their message to the general public. Contrary to popular belief, propaganda does not necessarily consist of lies or even distortions. At its most effective it is selective truth, half­truths, truths out of context, or statements about the future that cannot be proved or disproved. Nothing is more harmful to a propagandist than to

-95-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini: Totalitarianism in the Twentieth Century
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • The European History Series *
  • Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini - Totalitarianism in the Twentieth Century *
  • Foreword vii
  • Contents ix
  • Illustrations xiii
  • Preface *
  • Preface - To the First Edition xix
  • 1: The Ideological Foundations 1
  • 2: The Seizure of Power 11
  • 3: Personalities and Policies of the Dictators 48
  • 4: Totalitarian Economies 72
  • 5: Propaganda, Culture, and Education 95
  • 6: Family Values and Health 125
  • 7: Totalitarian Terror 151
  • 8: The Era of Traditional Diplomacy and War, 1933–1941 173
  • 9: Total War, 1941–1945 206
  • 10: The Collapse of Soviet Totalitarianism 242
  • 11: Lessons and Prospects 265
  • Bibliographical Essay 277
  • Index 301
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 313

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.