The Islamic World: Past and Present - Vol. 1

By John L. Esposito | Go to book overview


People and Places

Abbas I (ruled 1588–1629) Shah of Safavid empire of Iran

Abbasids (750–1258) Dynasty that controlled the caliphate after the Umayyads; established capital in Baghdad in 762

Abd al-Qadir (1808–1883) Sufi poet; led uprising in Algeria against French 1832–1847

Abduh, Muhammad (1849–1905) Egyptian scholar and architect of Islamic modernism

Abraham Patriarch of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; father of Ismail

Abu Bakr (ca. 573–634) Companion and follower of Muhammad; served as the first caliph from 632 to 634

Abu Hanifah (699–767) Legal scholar who founded the Hanafi, one of the four Sunni schools of law

Afghani, Jamal al-Din al- (1838–1897) Political activist and writer, best known for his role in the Pan-Islamic movement

Ahmad Khan, Sayyid (1817–1898) Islamic writer and reformer in British India who sought to modernize the interpretation of Islam

A’ishah (614–678) Muhammad’s third and youngest wife; daughter of Abu Bakr, one of the Prophet’s most important supporters

Akbar, Jalaludin Muhammad (1542–1605) Mughal emperor who expanded the realm and improved the efficiency of government

Alawi Minority Shi’i sect in Syria and Turkey

Ali ibn Abi Talib (ca. 597–661) Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad who became the fourth caliph; conflicts over succession and Ali’s assassination ultimately led to the division of Muslims into Shi’is and Sunnis

Andalusia Southernmost region of Spain controlled by Muslims from 711 to 1492

Arafat, Yasir (1929–) Founder and leader of Palestinian Liberation Organization

Ash’ari, Abu al-Hasan al- (ca. 873–935) Theologian who founded the Ash’ari school of Islamic thought

Assad, Hafiz al- (1928–2000) President of Syria from 1971 to 2000

Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal (1881–1938) Revolutionary leader and founder of modern Turkish state

Banna, Hasan al- (1906–1949) Founder of Muslim Brotherhood and Egyptian reformer

Bedouins Desert nomads, especially in North Africa, Syria, and Arabia

Beg, Toghril (died 1063) Early Seljuk leader who conquered Iran and Iraq

Berbers North-African ethnic group, primarily Muslim

Bin Laden, Osama (1957–) Islamic militant from Saudi Arabia; head of the al-Qaeda network

Byzantine Empire (330–1453) Eastern Christian Empire based in Constantinople

Caucacus Region of southern Europe between Black and Caspian Seas

Córdoba Caliphate in Muslim Spain from 756 to 1016; also important city and cultural center

Dan Fodio, Usuman (ca. 1754–1817) Founder and ruler of Sokoto caliphate in Nigeria

Druze Offshoot of Shi’i Islam, found mainly in Lebanon and Syria

Elijah Muhammad (1897–1975) Longtime leader of the Nation of Islam, militant religious group promoting the development of African American society

Farabi, Abu Nasr al- (870–950) Arab scholar, regarded as father of Islamic political science

Farrakhan, Louis (1933–) Leader of Nation of Islam, militant religious group promoting the development of African American society

Fatimah (ca. 605–633) Daughter of Muhammad and wife of Ali ibn Abi Talib

Fatimid Dynasty (909–1171) Family claiming descent from Fatimah that established caliphate that controlled North Africa; extended rule as far as Syria

Gasprinskii, Ismail Bey (1851–1914) Reformer who worked to help Turkish Muslims living under Russian rule in Crimea

Ghazali, Abu Hamid al- (1058-1111) Influential Muslim thinker who studied many areas of religion and science

-201-

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The Islamic World: Past and Present - Vol. 1
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • The Islamic World - Past and Present iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • Chronology of the Islamic World xi
  • Abbasid Caliphate 1
  • Glossary 197
  • People and Places 201
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