1. Act a Fool (Macola, 1988) was King Tee’s first album.
2. Nelson George, Hip Hop America (New York: Viking, 1998), 169.
3. Marc Spiegler, “Marketing Street Culture,” American Demographics 18, no. 2 (November 1996): 28. Early underground rap cuts for malt liquor include NWA’s 12–inch single “8 Ball” (Macola, 1987) and DMC’s ode to Olde English 800 (“Crack the quart, put it to your lip / you tilt it slightly and take a sip / now by now you should know the deal / ’cause that one sip you already feel”). Around the turn of the 1990s, southern-influenced Bay Area rapper Earl Stevens began calling himself E-40 because of his predilection for 40–0z. beers.
4. Figures from Alix Freedman, “Potent New Heileman Malt Is Brewing Fierce Industry and Social Criticism,” Wall Street Journal, 17 June 1991.
5. David Bauder, “Rap Commercials for Malt Liquor Ignite Controversy,” Associated Press, 20 November 1991.
6. John Clarke, Stuart Hall, Tony Jefferson, and Brian Roberts, “Subcultures, Cultures, and Class: A Theoretical Overview,” in Stuart Hall and Tony Jefferson, eds., Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-war Britain (London: Hutchinson, 1976), 56. Paul Willis first formulated the idea of “homology” in Profane Culture (London: Routledge/Kegan Paul, 1978), to denote the internal com