100 Greatest Science Inventions of All Time

By Kendall Haven | Go to book overview
Save to active project

Cloning
Year of Invention: 1996

What Is It? A descendant produced from a single parent plant or animal that is
an exact genetic match of the parent.

Who Invented It? Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell (in Scotland)


Why Is This Invention One of the 100 Greatest?

Cloning seems like a science fiction technology. But cloning technology exists today. Its potential benefit is far greater than fiction writers ever imagined.

Cloning technology has the potential to cure a dozen deadly diseases, to stop another dozen debilitating ailments, to reduce world hunger, and to eliminate infant genetic defects. Cloning technology can repair DNA and gene defects and repair damaged spinal tissue so than many wheelchair-bound people could freely walk.


History of the Invention

What Did People Do Before?

The idea of cloning dates back to 1938. German scientist Hans Spellman proposed a “fantastic experiment” to transfer one cell’s nucleus into an egg cell that didn’t have a nucleus. The idea sparked wild enthusiasm in the global biology community. Cloning seemed like the perfect way to study the process of cell and DNA division and the meaning of life.

In 1962, American researcher John Gruden tried to clone frogs. Gruden used a microscopic pipette to suck the nucleus out of one cell in a frog embryo and implanted that nucleus into a frog egg from a different frog. As that egg began to develop, it was a perfect clone of the donor frog. However, each cloned frog died in the tadpole stage before it began to feed.

Even though Gruden failed, his experiment was a milestone in cloning. He had cloned an animal.

In 1984, Danish scientist Steen Willadsen was the first researcher to successfully clone a mammal. He cloned a sheep by transferring a nucleus from one cell of a sheep embryo to the egg cell from another sheep before that egg had time to divide for the first time.

-300-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
100 Greatest Science Inventions of All Time
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 336

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?