Gangrene and Glory: Medical Care during the American Civil War

By Frank R. Freemon | Go to book overview

13
Northern versus Southern Medicine at Vicksburg

THE UNION HAD OCCUPIED MEMPHIS BY ADVANCing down the Mississippi River from Illinois. The United States Navy had forced its way up the Mississippi from the Gulf of Mexico and had taken New Orleans. Vicksburg remained the great rebel fortress that prevented the free flow of the products of the Midwest down the Mississippi River to world markets. Medical support for the campaign to wrest the Gibraltar of the West from Confederate hands challenged Northern medical resources. The Southern defensive effort was poorly served by inadequate Confederate medical support.1

The Union force assigned the mission of taking Vicksburg was named the Army of the Tennessee because of their previous successes along the Tennessee River. They should not be confused with the Confederate Army of Tennessee, named after the state. The Union forces numbered about 155,000 men and were under the command of Ulysses S. Grant.

Grant's initial plan called for an overland movement from Memphis to Vicksburg along the line of the railroad. Rebel forces cut this rail communication, however, and Grant feared that his army might be isolated deep within Confederate territory. He therefore retreated to Memphis and decided to advance by water down the great Mississippi River. In December 1862 the Confederate defenders repulsed a hurried assault upon the northern ramparts of the Vicksburg defenses. The following spring, Grant moved his fighting forces down the Mississippi, landing on the western shore opposite Vicksburg. Hiring thousands of former slaves as laborers, the Union army attempted to dig a canal that would bypass the Vicksburg fortress. When this attempt failed, Grant determined upon a daring plan.

In May Grant transported a major portion of his force downriver, past the huge guns of Vicksburg. They landed upon the eastern shore of the Mississippi and rapidly moved overland toward Jackson, the capital of the state of Mississippi, fighting major skirmishes. Grant and his army were loose in rebel territory without support and without a clear line of retreat.

Grant was opposed by the Confederate force called the Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana. John C. Pemberton commanded this force until May, when he was superseded by Joseph E. Johnston. When Johnston arrived at the state capital, he was met by the Union Army of the Tennessee and a battle ensued. Johnston was forced to retreat and was unable to link up with Pemberton's forces in Vicksburg. The Vicksburg defenders came out of the city to engage Grant at the major battle of the campaign, fought near a plantation called Champion's Hill. Pemberton retreated back into Vicksburg with about twenty-seven thousand men, where he became surrounded. With thirty-five thousand Confederate soldiers under his command, Johnston retook the state capital as Grant moved toward Vicksburg. Grant's troops surrounding Vicksburg numbered about seventy-five thousand; the remainder of the Army of the Tennessee were guarding the river, the city of Memphis, and western Tennessee. The Confederate troops under Johnston were unable to lift Grant's siege and Vicksburg surrendered on 4 July 1863.

-116-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Gangrene and Glory: Medical Care during the American Civil War
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 254

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.