Choices and Changes: Interest Groups in the Electoral Process

By Michael M. Franz | Go to book overview

Notes

Chapter 1: The Puzzle of Interest Group Electioneering

1. “Campaign Briefing,” Compiled by B. Drummond Ayres Jr., New York Times, 10/11/2000, p. A28.

2. “Bush Basks in Southern Hospitality; Gore Battles for Vote-Rich Florida as Rest of Region Leans Toward Republican,” by Ken Foskett, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 10/11/2000, p. A1.

3. The data reported thus far come from reports filed with the Federal Election Commission.

4. “A Growing Addiction,” Editorial, Washington Post, 9/4/2001, p. A18.

5. Data on soft money contributions to parties go back only to 1991, when the FEC mandated that parties report receipts to their nonfederal accounts (I expand on this in Chapter 2). While there are some data archives of political advertisements over time—namely, at the University of Oklahoma— data on the frequency of aired political advertisements go back, at the earliest, to the 1996 elections.

6. In 1974, Congress passed major campaign finance changes in the form of amendments to the tamer Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (FECA). I expand on this in Chapter 2.

7. This is based on Poole and Rosenthal's DW-NOMINATE scores, which places Members of Congress on a liberal-conservative dimension. The scores generally range from −1 to 1, with −1 being the extreme liberal position in the House and Senate and 1 being the extreme conservative position. According to their scaling, Jeffords' ideology as a Republican (from January 2001 to June

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