Landmark Congressional Laws on Education

By David Carleton | Go to book overview

15
Title IX

June 23, 1972

Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments represented the first federal legislative treatment of gender discrimination in education. Gender discrimination in employment had been prohibited by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, but discrimination with respect to students was not covered, and there was growing evidence of and social concern over such discrimination throughout the 1960s. The federal government took several initiatives against gender discrimination in the 1960s—the Equal Pay Act of 1863, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and Executive Order 11246 in 1967 requiring affirmative action to address employment discrimination—but these did not focus on education. Title IX addressed the issue comprehensively. With only a few exceptions, it prohibits any form of gender discrimination in all educational programs receiving federal funds, whether at the primary, secondary, or postsecondaiy level. It covers the treatment of all women in education, whether they are students, teachers, or support staff. Title IX has played a key, perhaps essential, role in protecting the rights of female students and personnel in schools and expanding educational programming and opportunity to women.

Politically, a series of competing proposals in Congress dealt with gender discrimination in 1971 and 1972, but Title IX was not a major factor in the larger debate over the Education Amendments. Following some parliamentary maneuvers, the final version of Title IX passed rather uneventfully. Significant political conflict followed passage, however, particularly over the impact of Title IX on collegiate athletics and the extent to which Title IX allowed the federal

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Landmark Congressional Laws on Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Series Foreword vii
  • Timeline of Milestones in U.S.Education xi
  • Introduction 1
  • 1: The Land Ordinance of 1785 13
  • 2: The Northwest Ordinance 19
  • 3: The First Morrill Act 27
  • 4: The Freedmen's Bureau 41
  • 5: The Second Morrill Act 53
  • 6: The Smith-Hughes Act 63
  • 7: The Servicemen's Readjustment Act 77
  • 8: The National School Lunch Act 87
  • 9: The Impact Laws 97
  • 10: The National Defense Education Act 109
  • 11: The Economic Opportunity Act 123
  • 12: The Elementary and Secondary Education Act 135
  • 13: The Higher Education Act 147
  • 14: The Bilingual Education Act 161
  • 15: Title IX 171
  • 16: Education for All Handicapped Children Act 181
  • 17: Department of Education Organization Act 193
  • 18: Goals 2000: Educate America Act 205
  • Bibliography 217
  • Index 223
  • About the Author 229
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