A March of Liberty: A Constitutional History of the United States - Vol. 1

By Melvin I. Urofsky; Paul Finkelman | Go to book overview

Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court

THE NUMBER (1) indicates the Chief Justice; the other numbers show the order in which the original members of the Court were appointed, and then the order of succession. For example, if we follow the number (4) we see that James Wilson was succeeded first by Bushrod Washington, then by Henry Baldwin, and so on.

Many of those who have served on the nation's highest court have either not been well served by biographers or have been outright ignored. There are good sources for biographical and analytical essays on these, and in fact on all the justices. The most recent scholarship is contained in the essays in Melvin I. Urofsky, ed., The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary (1994). Leon Friedman and Fred L. Israel, eds., The Justices of the United States Supreme Court, 1789–1978: Their Lives and Major Opinions 5 vols. (1969–1980) is still useful, and also has some of the more important opinions.


Appointed by George Washington

(1) John Jay (1745–1829); Federalist from New York; served 1789–1795; resigned.

(2) john Rutledge (1739–1800); Federalist from South Carolina; appointed 1789; resigned 1791 without ever sitting.

(3) William Cushing (1732–1810); Federalist from Massachusetts; served 1789–1810; died.

(4) James Wilson (1742–1798); Federalist from Pennsylvania; served 1789–1798; died.

(5) John Blair, Jr. (1732–1800); Federalist from Virginia; served 1789–1796; resigned.

(6) James Iredell (1751–1799); Federalist from North Carolina; served 1790–1799; died.

(2) Thomas Johnson (1732–1819); Federalist from Maryland; served 1791–1793; resigned.

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A March of Liberty: A Constitutional History of the United States - Vol. 1
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • For Susan and Byrgen—yet Again v
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xiii
  • 1: From the Old World to the New 1
  • 2: Law in Colonial America 17
  • 3: The Road to Independence 39
  • 4: The Revolutionary Era 61
  • 5: The Crisis of Confederation 80
  • 6: A More Perfect Union 93
  • 7: Launching the Great Experiment 120
  • 8: The Supreme Court: the First Decade 147
  • 9: The Changing Face of the Law 165
  • 10: Adams, Jefferson, and the Courts 181
  • 11: The Marshall Court and National Power 207
  • 12: The Marshall Court and Economic Development 229
  • 13: A Law Made for the Times 248
  • 14: Politics, Nationalism, and Competition 271
  • 15: Jacksonian Democracy 296
  • 16: The Taney Court: Change and Continuity 320
  • 17: The Peculiar Laws of America's Peculiar Institution 337
  • 18: A House Dividing 366
  • 19: The Union Sundered 401
  • 20: The Union Unrestored 429
  • 21: Reconstruction 451
  • 22: The Court and Civil Rights 479
  • Appendixes - The Declaration of Independence 501
  • Articles of Confederation 505
  • Constitution of the United States 511
  • Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court 528
  • Case Index 537
  • Subject Index 542
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