The History of Psychology: Fundamental Questions

By Margaret P. Munger | Go to book overview

loose another and lead him up to the light, let them only catch the offender, and they would put him to death. No question, he said.
1. Reading παρόντα


Hippocrates (460–377 B.C.) may have been a single individual, a fine physician, and a
teacher, but little record of his life exists. In fact, the “Hippocratic Collection” does not ap-
pear to have been written by a single hand: its style, addressed audience, and even opin-
ions shift through the 60–70 items. For example, around A.D. 100, both Seribonius Largus,
a physician traveling in Britain with Emperor Claudius, and the Greek Soranus, working in
Rome, followed the principles in the “Hippocratic Collection.” Yet Scribonius Largus's re-
fusal to perform any abortion and Soranus's choice to perform safe, alternative procedures
are both supported by the collection. It is likely that the collection formed the heart of a
medical library at Cos and was transferred to the library at Alexandria around 300–200 B.C.


An explanation of the empirical basis of medicine as practised about the end of the fifth century B.C. This trea tise is sometimes referred to as On Ancient Medicine.
1. In all previous attempts to speak or to write about medicine, the authors have introduced certain arbitrary postulates1 into their arguments, and have reduced the causes of death and the maladies that affect mankind to a narrow compass. They have supposed that there are but one or two causes: heat or cold, moisture, dryness or anything else they may fancy. From many considerations their mistake is obvious; indeed, this is proved from their own words. They are specially to be censured since they are concerned with no bogus science, but one which all employ in a matter of the greatest importance, and one of which the good professors and practitioners are held in high repute. But besides such there are both sorry practitioners and those who hold widely divergent opinions. This could not happen were medicine a bogus science to which no consideration had ever been given and in which no discoveries had been made. For if it were so, all would be equally inexperienced and ignorant, and the condition of their patients due to nothing but the law of chance. But this is not so, and the practitioners of medicine differ greatly among themselves both in theory and practice just as happens in every other science. For this reason I do not think that medicine is in need of some new postulate, dealing, for instance, with invisible or problematic substances, and about which one must have some postulate or another in order to discuss them seriously. In such matters, medicine differs from subjects like astronomy and geology, of which a man might know the truth and lecture on it without either he or his audience being able to judge whether it were the truth or not, because there is no sure criterion.
2. Medicine has for long possessed the qualities necessary to make a science. These are a starting point

From Hippocrates “Tradition in Medicine,” “Dreams,” and “Nature of Man.” In G. E. R. Lloyd (Ed.), J. Chadwick and W. N.
Mann (Trans.), Hippocratic Writings (pp. 70–86, 252–271). New York: Penguin, 1986.


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The History of Psychology: Fundamental Questions
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • Part 1 - What is the Mind? 1
  • 1: Plato 2
  • 2: Hippocrates 4
  • 3: Aristotle 20
  • 4: Saint Augustine of Hippo 35
  • 5: Saint Thomas Aquinas 46
  • Part 2 - Mechanisms of Mind 67
  • 6: RenÉ Descartes 68
  • 7: John Locke 81
  • 8: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 96
  • 9: David Hume 113
  • 10: Immanuel Kant 127
  • Part 3 - Scientific Methods 141
  • 11: Gustav Theodor Fechner 142
  • 12: Hermann Von Helmholtz 154
  • 13: Hermann Ebbinghaus 168
  • 14: Ivan Pavlov 178
  • Part 4 - Emotion and Instinct in Animals and Humans 187
  • 15: Charles Darwin 188
  • 16: Margaret Floy Washburn 203
  • 17: William James 215
  • 18: Francis Galton 232
  • Part 5 - Human Development 249
  • 19: Milicent W. Shinn 250
  • 20: Sigmund Freud 258
  • 21: Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon 270
  • 22: Hugo MÜnsterberg 288
  • Part 6 - What is the Goal of Psychology? 295
  • 23: Wilhelm Wundt 296
  • 24: Max Wertheimer 308
  • 25: E. B. Titchener 324
  • Part 7 - Learning 331
  • 26: John B. Watson 332
  • 27: Edward C. Tolman 341
  • 28: D. O. Hebb 357
  • Part 8 - Cognition 367
  • 29: Jean Piaget 368
  • 30: L. S. Vygotski 387
  • 31: B. F. Skinner 399
  • 32: Noam Chomsky 408
  • 33: Sir Frederic C. Bartlett 430
  • 34: Ulric Neisser 447
  • Part 9 - Considerations of Context 467
  • 35: James J. Gibson 468
  • 36: James L. Mcclelland, David E. Rumelhart, and Geoffrey E. Hinton 478
  • 37: V. S. Ramachandran and Sandra Blakeslee 492
  • Bibliography of Readings 511
  • Bibliography of Biographical References 513


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