The History of Psychology: Fundamental Questions

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municate his thought (the age when ego-centric language is 25%) is probably somewhere between 7 and 8. This does not mean that from the age of 7 or 8 children can immediately understand each other—we shall see later on that this is far from being the case—it simply means that from this age onwards they try to improve upon their methods of interchanging ideas and upon their mutual understanding of one another.
1. With the collaboration of Mlle Germaine Guex and of Mlle Hilda de Meyenburg.
2. British Journ. of Psych. (Med. Sect.), Vol. I, Part 2, 1921, p. 151.
3. See Jones, E, “A Linguistic Factor in English Characterology,” Intern. Journal of Psycho-Anal., Vol. I, Part 3, p. 256 (see quotations from Ferenczi and Freud, p. 257).
4. See Intern. Zeitschrift f. Psychoanal., Vol. VI, p. 401 (a report of the proceedings of the Psycho-analytical Conference at the Hague).
5. Our grateful thanks are due to the ladies in charge of the Maison des Petits, Mlles Audemars and Lafandel, who gave us full freedom to work in their classes.
6. P. Janet, loc. cit., p. 150.
7. These cases will be dealt with elsewhere.
8. For such cock-and-bull stories, see p. 371, sentence 30.
9. A. Descœudres, “Le developpement de l'enfant de deux à sept ans,” Coll. Actual. Ped., 1922, p. 190.
10. For the definition of this term, see Chapter V.
11. Id.
12. See Chapter V.
13. See Appendix.
14. We are at the moment collecting similar data from various children between the ages of 3 and 7, in such a way as to establish a graph of development. These results will probably appear in the Archives de Psychologie.
15. There is interaction between these two modes of thought. Autism undoubtedly calls into being and enriches many inventions which are subsequently clarified and demonstrated by intelligence.
16. See Flournoy, H. “Quelques rêves au sujet de la signification symbolique de l'eau et du feu.” Intern. Zeitschr. f. Psychoan., Vol. VI. p. 398 (cf. pp. 329 and 330).
17. We have published the case of Vo of a child of 9, who regards humanity as descended from a baby who issued from a worm which came out of the sea. Cf. Piaget, “La pensée symbolique et la pensée de l'enfant.” Arch. Psych., Vol. XVIII, 1923.


Lev Semyonovich Vygotski (1896–1934) was fascinated by history and literature, but his
parents persuaded him that medicine was a more practical career. Having graduated with
honors and a gold medal from high school, it seemed likely that he would be accepted to
the Medical School at Moscow University, but in 1913 it was determined that the 3 per-
cent quota allowed for Jews would be filled by randomly selecting applicants. To Vygotski's
surprise, he was accepted, though his foray into medicine did not last through the first se-
mester, and he transferred to the law school. During the 1910s in Moscow, many of the
leading faculty had left Moscow University for Shaniavsky University to protest various op-
pressive acts by the minister of education. Consequently, Vygotski enrolled there as well
and majored in philosophy and history. During the October Revolution of 1917, the recent
graduate Vygotski was at his parents' new home in Gomel. He remained in Gomel and
taught literature in a local school but developed a fascination with works like William
James's (p. 216) The Varieties of Religious Experience, and Sigmund Freud's (p. 258) Psy-
chopathology of Everyday Life. In 1924 at the Second Psychoneurological Congress in


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