The History of Psychology: Fundamental Questions

By Margaret P. Munger | Go to book overview
formation of learning sets, Psych. rev. 56.51–65 (1949), and many later papers, where striking shifts in the character of learning are shown as a result of early training; also Hebb, Organization of behavior 109 ff.) They are undoubtedly quite complex. Cf. Lenneberg, op.cit., and Lees, review of Chomsky's Syntactic structures in Lg. 33.4406 f. (1957), for discussion of the topics mentioned in this section.

33
SIR FREDERIC C. BARTLETT

Sir Frederic Charles Bartlett (1886–1969) discovered psychology through his philosophical
interests, but once he had been introduced to the field, he repeatedly traveled 18 miles to
the nearest public library to read the Encyclopedia Britannica article on psychology. He
earned an M.A. in sociology and ethics from London University and continued at St. John's
College, Cambridge, with plans to study anthropology. To prepare for anthropological
fieldwork, Bartlett decided to study moral science and found the required and dreaded
work of four hours a week in the psychology laboratory quite interesting. He graduated
with a degree in moral science and accepted a position in the Cambridge Psychological
Laboratory in 1922, and a new chair in experimental psychology in 1931. During World
War II, he worked on a variety of applied problems for the Royal Air Force, for which he
was knighted in 1948. Experimental psychology and ergonomics fascinated him through-
out his career. In his autobiography he wrote: “I will finish with the sort of remark that
ought to be perfectly obvious. A psychologist who thinks that his work is done, that all that
is now needed is the application of a final scheme to new instances, is dead. Psychology
will go and leave him lamenting. Like the reactions it studies, psychology is living and ori-
ented forward: there can be no end to its achievements.”


REMEMBERING: A STUDY IN EXPERIMENTAL AND
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

CHAPTER V

Experiments on Remembering
(b) The Method of Repeated Reproduction

1. Description of the Method

The Method of Repeated Reproduction follows almost exactly the plan of investigation adopted by Philippe in his experiments Sur les transformations de nos images mentales,1 except that the material used was different and the experiments themselves were continued for a much longer period. A subject was given a story, or an argumentative prose passage, or a simple drawing to study under prescribed conditions. He attempted a first reproduction usually after an interval of 15 minutes, and thereafter gave further reproductions at intervals of increasing length. By using this method I hoped to find something about the common types of change introduced by normal individuals into remembered material with increasing lapse of time. Obviously the nature of

From Sir Frederic C. Bartlett, “The Method of Repeated Production.” In Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psy-
chology (pp. 63–94). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1932.

-430-

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The History of Psychology: Fundamental Questions
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • Part 1 - What is the Mind? 1
  • 1: Plato 2
  • 2: Hippocrates 4
  • 3: Aristotle 20
  • 4: Saint Augustine of Hippo 35
  • 5: Saint Thomas Aquinas 46
  • Part 2 - Mechanisms of Mind 67
  • 6: RenÉ Descartes 68
  • 7: John Locke 81
  • 8: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 96
  • 9: David Hume 113
  • 10: Immanuel Kant 127
  • Part 3 - Scientific Methods 141
  • 11: Gustav Theodor Fechner 142
  • 12: Hermann Von Helmholtz 154
  • 13: Hermann Ebbinghaus 168
  • 14: Ivan Pavlov 178
  • Part 4 - Emotion and Instinct in Animals and Humans 187
  • 15: Charles Darwin 188
  • 16: Margaret Floy Washburn 203
  • 17: William James 215
  • 18: Francis Galton 232
  • Part 5 - Human Development 249
  • 19: Milicent W. Shinn 250
  • 20: Sigmund Freud 258
  • 21: Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon 270
  • 22: Hugo MÜnsterberg 288
  • Part 6 - What is the Goal of Psychology? 295
  • 23: Wilhelm Wundt 296
  • 24: Max Wertheimer 308
  • 25: E. B. Titchener 324
  • Part 7 - Learning 331
  • 26: John B. Watson 332
  • 27: Edward C. Tolman 341
  • 28: D. O. Hebb 357
  • Part 8 - Cognition 367
  • 29: Jean Piaget 368
  • 30: L. S. Vygotski 387
  • 31: B. F. Skinner 399
  • 32: Noam Chomsky 408
  • 33: Sir Frederic C. Bartlett 430
  • 34: Ulric Neisser 447
  • Part 9 - Considerations of Context 467
  • 35: James J. Gibson 468
  • 36: James L. Mcclelland, David E. Rumelhart, and Geoffrey E. Hinton 478
  • 37: V. S. Ramachandran and Sandra Blakeslee 492
  • Bibliography of Readings 511
  • Bibliography of Biographical References 513
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