Handbook of Cognition and Emotion

By Tim Dalgleish; Mick J. Power | Go to book overview

Chapter 22
Anxiety and Anxiety
Disorders

Colin MacLeod
The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia

The study of cognitive functioning in anxious individuals has a long history within Experimental psychology. However, until 15 or so years ago, most of this research focused principally upon delineating and explaining the patterns of cognitive deficits commonly displayed by clinically anxious patients, and by normal individuals reporting high levels of state or trait anxiety. This early research revealed performance decrements in anxious subjects on a broad range of cognitive tasks. It now has been established, for example, that anxious individuals exhibit deficient inductive reasoning (Reed, 1977), slowed decision latencies (Volans, 1976), shallow depth of processing (Fransson, 1977) and reduced memory span (Idzihowski & Baddeley, 1987). They also demonstrate impaired attentional control (Broadbent, Broadbent & Jones, 1986), displaying particular problems in the execution of attentional inhibition (Fox, 1994).

Perhaps the most influential account of these performance deficits is that introduced by M. W. Eysenck (e.g. Eysenck, 1982,1992; Eysenck & Calvo, 1992), which implicates a functional restriction in working memory capacity. Specifically, Eysenck draws attention to the characteristic cognitive preoccupations with emotionally negative concerns commonly displayed by highly anxious individuals. Collectively, such preoccupations represent the “worry” symptoms of anxiety, as distinct from the “somatic” symptoms, which principally reflect elevated sympathetic arousal (cf. Deffenbacher, 1980). According to Eysenck, worrying represents a resource-consuming task-irrelevant cognitive process, maintained by the allocation of working memory capacity, and it is this depletion of working memory that underpins anxiety-related cognitive deficits.

Consistent with Eysenck's hypothesis, there is indeed evidence that anxietyrelated performance deficits may be restricted to those cognitive tasks which

-447-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Handbook of Cognition and Emotion
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 850

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.