Psychology and Law: Truthfulness, Accuracy and Credibility

By Amina Memon; Aldert Vrij et al. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

This text, Psychology and Law: Truthfulness, Accuracy and Credibility, provides a comprehensive review of relevant topics as far as determining the accuracy of a witness, victim or suspect is concerned. Each chapter not only focuses on relevant research but also presents readers with a detailed understanding of the research methodology, the theoretical perspectives, the shortcomings of the research/ theory and the practical significance of the findings.

Chapter 2 examines the characteristics of liars. Nonverbal, verbal and physiological cues (such as the polygraph) to deception are described together with a discussion of what professional lie catchers believe to be cues to deception and of their ability to detect deceit. We discuss the reasons why professional lie catchers (and people in general) make mistakes while attempting to detect deceit. We also examine the social contexts in which lying occurs and people's reasons for lying. Liars are said to experience three processes during the time that they are engaging in deception (and probably afterwards, too), and much of the research literature is organised around the study of these three processes. The first is an emotional reaction (such as guilt, fear and excitement), and this can independently influence behaviour. For example, guilt may sometimes result in gaze aversion. The second is “cognitive overload” arising from the difficulty of maintaining deceitful behaviour. This can result in disturbances in speech content, gaze aversion and other behaviours. The third process is behavioural control or impression management. This can suppress the behaviours that liars believe may “give away” a lie (for example, a reduction in hand movements). We argue that behavioural cues to deception may become visible only if a liar substantially experiences at least one of these three processes. The bulk of research in this area is laboratory based. However, there are some examples of deception detection in high-stake real-life situations. For example, we describe an analysis of former US President Bill Clinton's behaviour during his testimony before the grand jury in 1998 about his alleged sexual affair with Monica Lewinsky. We also report an in-depth study of the behaviour displayed by 16 suspects who were interviewed by the police in connection with serious crimes such as murder, rape and arson (Mann, Vrij & Bull, 2002).

We end Chapter 2 by concluding that no perfect lie detection test exists, and that lie detection experts make wrong judgements on a regular basis. However, there are detection methods which enable lie detectors to determine whether someone is lying or telling the truth above the level of chance, and these may assist investigators in early stages of their investigation.

-1-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Psychology and Law: Truthfulness, Accuracy and Credibility
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 224

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.