1. Appendix A provides a detailed exposition of our methods for estimating total, direct, and indirect effects.
1. The opportunities for married children to live together with married parents were also limited by the fact that marriage and childbearing were late by international standards, and mortality and fertility were high (Ruggles 1987, 1994).
2. The belief that love was not part of the calculus of marriage in the Western past originated from two fundamental errors by scholars in the 1700s and 1800s (Thornton 2005). First, these scholars believed that they could know what marriage was like in the Western past by examining marriage at their time outside the West. When they observed that marriages in many contemporary societies outside the West were arranged by parents without the romance and courtship of the marrying couple, they concluded that in the past arranged marriages were common in the West. Second, they assumed that without romance and courtship in the mateselection process, there could be no love in marriage itself. In recent years historical research has shown substantial amounts of love in both courtship and marriage in the Western past (Brundage 1987; d'Avray 1985; d'Avary and Tausche 1981; Davies 1981; Duggan 1981; Gies and Gies 1987; Gottlieb 1980; Hanawalt 1986, 1993; Harming 1991; Herlihy 1985; Ingram 1981, 1985; Kooper 1991; Lantz et al. 1968; Leclercq 1982; Macfarlane 1970, 1986; Modell 1985; Noonan 1967, 1973; Norton 1980; O'Hara 1991; Olsen 2001; Outhwaite 1981; Ozment 1983; Pedersen 1998; Pierre 2001; Riley 1991; Rothman 1984; Sarsby 1983; Schama 1997; Shahar 1983; Sheehan 1978, 1991a, 1991b; Smout 1981; Wilson 1984; Wrightson 1982).